Three approaches to the study of psychological compatibility

Compatibility - fairly old concept in social psychology dictionary, however, the scientific study of the phenomenon, referred to this concept, interested in social psychology is relatively recent.Now it is difficult to establish, and what kind of social and psychological problems the first time we were talking about compatibility.In the study group conflicts, psychological climate in groups, affectivity group activities, the study of processes and results communication, the dynamics of interpersonal relations and other social and psychological phenomena, it was found that they were in a certain way due to the ratio of properties of interacting people.In some cases, this adversely affected the ratio learns phenomenon (reduced the effectiveness of the group, worsened the climate, etc...), In the other - positively.The combination of the characteristics that have a positive impact on the studied phenomenon, was referred to as human compatibility.

There is now quite a lot of empirical facts, established cer

tain patterns and compatibility mechanisms.

In studying the compatibility of the main task is to define the concept.This notion of general scientific, it is used in medicine, biology, cybernetics, philosophy.However, a common definition of compatibility does not exist yet.This term does not include any Great Soviet Encyclopedia or in Psychological Dictionary, edited by F. Kliksa.The Philosophical Dictionary, it is interpreted in a narrow sense: "... if we neglect some of the psychological and formal-logical distinction, the term" consistency "and" compatibility "are synonymous."There are two concepts in system theory, "compliance" and "interoperability"."Compliance - a form of compatibility phenomena of reality" - writes MI Setrov.This is - "a term close to the expediency".In the study of this kind raises the question of compatibility matching system and its environment characteristics.It is also used to refer to the compatibility tier-compatibility of various development-level systems (atoms and molecules, the individual and group).This type of compatibility is still referred to as a hierarchical matching systems, underscoring the fact of non-equivalence of systems in this association.

term "compatibility of the same order," or just "compatible" is used to refer to matching the characteristics of a development-level systems (two molecules, two individuals, and so on. N.).This type of compatibility MI Setrov gives the following definition: "... there is a compatibility ratio of the two systems, in which is found the affinity or commonality of systems in some parameters, or essentially, providing the possibility of interaction."

a descriptive definition of compatibility given in the psychological work.For example, the definition given by F. Gorbov and MA Novikov: "Compatibility - this concept of the mutual property line team members.It includes: sympathy, positive character of emotional installations vzaimovnushaemost, common interests and needs, the similarity of the dynamic orientation psycho-physiological reactions in the operator's activity and the absence of this group expressed egocentric aspirations. "

regard to socio-psychological research we were asked to distinguish between "srabatyvaemost" and "interoperability".Srabatyvaemost - is the consistency of characteristics of subjects, to provide an effective implementation of any activity-sti together.Srabatyvaemosti concept is applicable only to business, professional, industrial relations - relations in the framework of joint activities.Since these relations are directed to a specific product of joint activity, the manifestations of the compatibility of this type of activity are the characteristics: efficiency in terms of quantity and quality of time spent and energy partners.Compatibility phenomenon, unlike srabatyvaemosti - interpersonal phenomenon, existing within a personal relationship based on sympathy, attraction and employees' communication for the sake of dialogue. "You can select a single content of the concepts of "work" and "communication".As a "compatibility" and "srabatyvaemost" are concepts to describe the objective of conformity properties of interacting people in relation to the objectives of their interaction.This is a working definition of the essence of compatibility we take as a starting point for further discussion.

The ambiguity of the concept of compatibility studies led to the second problem of this phenomenon: the choice of criteria or indicators of compatibility.In the works devoted to the study of compatibility, we find the use of a variety of criteria: the high cohesion of the group, its stability over time, the high efficiency of group activities, low conflict group, high mutual understanding between partners - in short, any of the socio-psychological phenomena, taken inits positive significance.However, none of the compatibility criteria currently used is not sufficiently grounded and strong.You can provide evidence of the vulnerability of each of them.For example, the duration of the relationship may be due to the objective impossibility to interrupt the relationship: in the limited field of choice of partners (especially in isolated groups), at a pressure other factors restraining disintegration of relationships (eg marriage).Conflicts and their frequency is also very representative, since it does not take into account the difference in the quality of these conflicts: the so-called constructive conflict is desirable and even necessary for the development of relations.Conclusion unequal criteria determines the most contradictions in the conclusions of different authors on the compatibility of laws.

We believe that the criteria will be different for compatibility and srabatyvaemosti compatibility in opposite-sex and same-sex relationships.So, the main criteria should be srabatyvaemosti performance indicators of group activities, taking into account the specifics of this type of activity.The criteria for selection of compatibility can serve as a partner for communication, relationship satisfaction, the nature of interpersonal feelings.

main task is to establish the compatibility studies of regularities of this phenomenon.Currently, there have been three main approaches to solving this problem: structural, functional and adaptive.

structural approach focused on finding optimal combinations of characteristics of group members.This is referred to as the optimal combination of harmony, matching the characteristics of the partners.The structural approach is based on the idea that the partners are compatible to form a kind of robust, adaptive, and in a sense, an efficient structure.In the analysis of empirical facts obtained by various authors, is clearly apparent that the compatibility of acts as similarity (similarity) or the difference (contrast) characteristics of the partners.In this case it is found that the properties, which are based on the inherent characteristics of the individual (for example, due to the properties of the nervous system, gender), compatible partners have more contrast than similar.The properties, due to the influence of education, social and cultural environment influences (eg, installation, value orientations), often similar.However, this conclusion can only be done with great caution due to the inconsistency and fragmentation of empirical facts.It is consistent with studies on the problems of the structures of system objects systems theory.All variety of structures it comes down to three basic types, the most common in society and nature: a hierarchical (or a centralized republic, tough), discrete (or corpuscular, skeletal) and star (mixed).Rigid systems are constructed of contrasting elements forming the "plus or minus a couple of" digital-out unified like.Rigid boom structure extended to the highest levels of organization of matter.As shown Ananiev, the principle antagonists (rigid system) manifests itself in the regulation of mental functions and the individuals as subjects of social interaction are complex systems with a variety of characteristics of different levels (psycho-physiological, psychological, socio-psychological, social).We can assume that for each of the characteristics of a more optimal levels of similarity or contrast of these characteristics to be compatible subjects.

For the vast majority of work in this area is characterized by a structural approach.However, it has significant disadvantages: firstly, the complete study sovmestimocti law requires testing for compliance with all conceivable characteristics of individuals.Research of this kind is extremely cumbersome;Secondly, even the full picture gives us the ability to judge what is the characteristics of the most important partners for the compatibility of the forecast in real group;Thirdly, the individual partial approach ignores the fact of its integrity.With this approach, the individual partners are considered to be wear-Julia individual mental characteristics, of which, according to BF Lomov, "lay down" .... the whole person is not possible. "

In a number of planned use of the functional approach to the study of compatibility.In the functional approach deemed to be a targeted education, which is the raison d'être - the implementation of certain functions.So, ya Zelenevsky notes: "... the realization of the objectives is the raison d'être of any organized groups."Partners in this approach are seen as carriers of certain functions - in social psychology, they are referred to as roles.roles harmonization measure serves as an indicator of compatibility.The researchers deliberately distracted from the study of the properties, which provide the participant pursuant to its role of the group.However, some of the psychological characteristics predispose to master and take certain roles, but there is no rigid connection.It is known from studies of leadership, acceptance of this role depends on three variables: the personal qualities of the individual, group and situation.

Using functional approach involves the study of the functions of the system, the establishment of the necessary for her roles patterns among individuals and analysis of role of cooperation partners in achieving the objectives of the system.Thus, this approach is used to examine the compatibility of marriage K. Kirkpatrick and us, and its effectiveness is confirmed by the results of the study.

Using functional approach requires a revision of ideas about the group and its members.It involves the study of functions, goals, group objectives, which are the backbone factors - the basis for the grouping.Achieving these objectives leads to group content of life, is the motive of participation in its activities as a common goal "to bring the participants some kind of satisfaction."In accordance with the functions of the group formed by group roles: the role of business or emotional leader, the role of a scholar, a generator of ideas, the artist (for example, in a research team), the role of hostess, parent, emotional leader (in the family).However, the functional approach is not widely spread in social psychology, although its productivity grounded theory in the works of philosophers and specialists in general systems theory.

third approach to the problem of compatibility - adaptive - is most prevalent in the clinic and psychological practice.Strictly speaking, this approach focuses on the study are not compatible, and its results: positive interpersonal relationships, effective communication.You can with certainty claim that such characteristics of communication and relationships as mutual understanding, respect, empathy, identification, positive interpersonal feelings are manifestations of compatibility, but not its content.Confusing cause and effect here is due to the fact that compatibility is the objective basis of solidarity, integration, high understanding.In turn, improving communication processes and interpersonal feelings and the resulting increase in cohesion, integration and reducing conflict.

adaptive approach and is focused on improving the communication processes in groups and improving interpersonal relationships.The researchers of this trend are focusing their efforts on the diagnosis of the characteristics of dialogue and the search for methods to improve them.It can be followed by the Pen to admit that in this case we are talking about compatibility as partners tolerance.

With adaptive approach attention of researchers are the "higher levels" of personality: self-image, attitudes, values, opinions, estimates, - in short, cultural identity Fund.In cognitivist research directions of foreign psychology it proved that the harmonization of the characteristics of the partners is the source of their compatibility.Since many of these characteristics are amenable to correction in the course of interaction between people, as well as under the influence of purposeful work of the therapist, the research within adaptive approach to compatibility are of great practical importance.

Creating a complete theory of psychological compatibility requires further serious methodological work to improve the conceptual apparatus, methods of investigation of this important socio-psychological phenomenon, the integration and synthesis of existing approaches already obtained facts.The urgent need to research compatibility issues stems from practical requirements: the selection of the problems of small groups of the tasks of improving the performance of existing teams and groups, especially families, sports teams, crews.