Study compatibility levels in a young family

problem of stability of marriage and the marital relationship is now attracting increasing attention of scientists.An important area of ​​research is the study of one of the two factors of internal stability of marriage - marital compatibility.

Based on the model of a multi-level structure of family relations, we can talk about the compatibility of spouses at each level, ie. E. On psychophysiological, psychological, socio-psychological and socio-cultural compatibility.Given the nature of the phasic development of the family, it can be assumed as a hypothesis, that the compatibility of each of the layers has specific features depending on one or another stage of development of the family.Defining these characteristics is necessary for the further development of the study programs of family relations, practical recommendations for family stabilization and preventive work on the psychological preparation of young people for family life.

Our research carried out in the framework of a comprehensive program

for the study of the psychological aspects of family relations, developed by the Laboratory of Psychology differential.Ananiev NIIKSI LSU, was designed to test the hypothesis of matrimonial compatibility specificity at different stages of development of a young family and, in the case of confirmation of the hypothesis, the definition of compatibility features three levels: psychological, socio-psychological and socio-cultural.According to the working definition of a young family it was considered such a family, conjugal partners experience which does not exceed three years, and spouses age 25 years.It considers that in its development the young family can take several steps.The first is the period of preparation for marriage.The boundaries of this phase were considered, on the one hand, the submission of an application to the Registry Office of the desire to get married, and with another - the official registration of the marriage registry office.After the first phase of the development of family relations may follow the path of consolidation, stabilization and development (step prosperous molodozhenstva) or by way of their disruption, mismatch, ultimately leading to the decision to dissolve the marriage (step molodozhenstva conflict).

addition to the main objectives of the study, our task was to highlight some of the issues of the choice of a marriage partner, in particular, parental family influence on this process.

METHOD

In accordance with the selected development stages of young family of three samples were formed that characterize each of the stages.

1. Couples who wish to apply for married and appear on the official registration.A total of 20 couples were surveyed.In the future face of the sample will be referred to marry.

2. Those who are in officially registered marriage with marital life experience up to three years, family relations are characterized as a prosperous, stable, t. E., Without significant conflicts that can lead to a decision about divorce.The composition of this sample included 19 couples.In the future - safe families.

3. Those who are in officially registered marriage, having the experience of married life of up to three years and came to the decision to dissolve the marriage for reasons bearing the psychological (dissimilarity of character, lack of understanding of each other, loss of interest to the partner, and so on. D.).This sample consisted of 13 pairs.Persons of this sample will be referred to conflict newlyweds.

All persons surveyed are characterized by an uniformity in age (from 21 years to 25 years), the formation of i to a university and higher education) and the period of pre-marital love (from 4 months to a year).In addition, the second person in fetey samples are approximately equal to the length of married life (from one year to 3 years).

Based on the current understanding of the structure of each of the compatibility levels for the consideration of the following techniques are used.

Psychological compatibility level.To study the characterological orientation of interpersonal behavior of individuals used the methodology proposed by l Leary (T. Leary) and a modified Yu Reshetnyak.The last, a system of formalized thesauri, various relations which allow to draw conclusions on a number of variables, describing how the couple as a whole, and each of the partners individually.Each of the subjects (1st and 2nd sample) evaluated three people: himself, his partner and their ideal partner.The analysis used some of the proposed thesaurus: the similarity of the characters, the actual awareness of the partner, the practical potential of the marriage, the psychological satisfaction.

Socio-psychological level of compatibility was studied using the method "Role expectations and aspirations in marriage", developed by A. N Volkova.This technique allows us to determine the installation of people in the distribution of family functions and on this basis to determine the importance of different family values: sexual intercourse, leisure activities like self-realization and development of the individual, household care, birth and parenting-family social aktivnos-1 and psychotherapyrelations, the visual attractiveness of spouse.

Sociocultural compatibility layer has been studied using the technique of "Value Orientations" developed by Rokeach and adapted Goshtautasom A., A. Semenov and V. poisons.The methodology is focused on getting the hierarchy of life goals (the so-called terminal values) and the hierarchy of means to achieve them (instrumental values).

to identify the characteristics of choice of marriage partner, the methodology proposed by J. Kelly (J. Kelly) to identify cognitive processes specific to this or that person, as well as to determine the degree of similarity between the different parties, and modified by us for research purposes.The essence of the method lies in the fact that the subject is necessary to compare the three proposed by him persons significant for it (the test) view, the grounds so that this feature was characteristic of two of the proposed troika individuals and absent in the third.Then, feature extraction is necessary to compare all the other people, noting their presence or absence of this feature.The operation is repeated with the next trio of persons and the following features.

In mathematical treatment of experimental data using standard procedures for taxonomic analysis and correlation with the calculation of rank correlation coefficient Spearman C. (C. Spearman), the concordance coefficient M. Kendel (M. Kendall) and Smith and the similarity index, calculated by the formula Jacquard.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In processing the experimental data obtained in the course of studying the psychological level of compatibility, it was revealed 14 significant correlations between different thesauri, seven - from marrying (6 of them on the significance level of 5%, and one - 1%) and seven - have advantaged newlyweds (3 of them at a level of significance of 1% and 4 - 5%).Let us dwell on the analysis and interpretation of the most interesting links.

1. We obtain a significant correlation between the similarity of the characters and the female partners of awareness about her husband and marrying, and unmarried.We can assume that if the partners are characterized by the similarity of characters, women adequately assess men and, therefore, their view of the nature of the partner at the consulting work in this case, you can trust more.Most likely such a relationship can be explained by the fact that women generally,

more focused on the emotional and communicative component, and by this good and subtly understand the feelings, emotional states partner, thereby obtaining additional information on the nature and structure of partner's personalityon interaction.

2. A significant relationship exists between women's actual awareness of the partner and vzaimootsenkami partners.And entering marriage, and married a woman knows better than a man, the more adequately assess each other's partners.Given the previous correlation, it can be assumed that the similarity in couples vzaimootsenkah achieved through a more accurate perception of the husband and wife.

3. There is a relationship between psychological satisfaction with marriage and likeness of characters from marrying.Such ties have married there, so we can assume that when you create a family, men are more satisfied, if a woman is similar to him in character, but in the future the similarity loses its significance and effect on the psychological satisfaction of her husband.

4. The most significant association in marrying registered between psychological satisfaction of women and self-assessments of partners.And although the rank correlation coefficient does not allow connection direction, we believe that the most likely we should talk about that, the closer to the ideal husband's real partner, the closest partners of self-esteem.

5. We married an association between partner similarity of characters and their actual awareness of the partner, which is absent from marrying.Since we surveyed persons who are married, are characterized by well-being and higher relationship satisfaction, it can be assumed that the accumulation of seniority successful married life men are beginning to better understand the partners of a similar nature.Obviously, this is due to expansion of areas of significant interactions.

6. revealed the connection between the actual and knowledgeable partners for each other, the lack of the intending spouses.It seems that this is a natural process: the accumulation of seniority marriage partners increased knowledge about each other.The greater and deeper husband finds his wife, the more the wife there is a need to know the husband, and vice versa.In conflict families, this trend comes to his extremely negative limit - the accumulation of observations of the negative traits of the partner and the nature of their use as nagging.

7. Significantly linked from married partners consisting psychological satisfaction.Since the wealthy family, that such a connection is clear: the more the couple met each other, the greater well-being characterized by their family relationships in general.

8. Practical mating capacity, calculated as the ratio of the ideal partner vzaimootsenok vzaimootsenok and partners, allows us to determine the presence of centripetal or centrifugal forces between the partners in a couple.If the similarity ideal partner higher than similarities in the real perception of each other, we can assume that the forces working in such an alliance, positive.Indeed, and marrying, and prosperous marriage newlyweds practical potential is negatively correlated with vzaimootsenkami partners and positively - with vzaimootsenkami ideal partner.All this leads to the conclusion that the rate of potential practical marriage can actually act as a good indicator of the presence of the forces of attraction or repulsion in a married couple based on their vzaimootsenok ideal partner.

Summarizing all the above, we can draw the following conclusions on the study of the psychological level of compatibility:

1) methodology, modified Yu Reshetnyak using formalized thesaurus is a good diagnostic tool for studying the characteristics of interpersonal relationships in the family (ie, the study of the psychological..levels of marital compatibility);

2) the similarity of the characters at the partners in a couple, women are more adequately assess their partner;

3) psychological satisfaction of men marrying above, if the characters of the partners are similar;

4) in affluent families psychological satisfaction of one of the partners is closely linked with the psychological satisfaction of another;

5) Knowledge of the character traits allows spouses to predict the development of their future relations.

the study of one of the indicators of socio-psychological level of compatibility - the value of intra - surveyed persons who are getting married, wealthy couple and couple with the conflict in family relationships.Determination of consensus within each selected group (men and women in each sample separately - a total of 6 groups) was carried out on the basis of calculation of concordance coefficients.In five of the six groups, these coefficients were significant at 0.1%: among women who marry (Kk = 0.402);women in happy marriage (CC = 0.277);women in conflict pairs (CC = 0.355);men marrying (Kk = 0.439), and men in conflict pairs (CC = 0.517).In men who are married, coherence factor turned out to be significant at the 1% level of significance (Kk = 0.169).When analyzing these data it was concluded that the large individual variations in the structure of family values ​​in affluent honeymooners group compared with the other two samples.So, with the accumulation time of marriage there is a transition from the general to some extent the ideal of a typical family structure of values ​​(from marrying), since there is still the experience of living together, to greater individualization of it in connection with already specific, realistic way of family life,relationship partners and distribution of family functions.

To clarify the correlation between family values ​​of different groups of three samples of 15 was calculated Spearman coefficients: the hierarchy of values ​​of intra-individual groups were compared with each other.no significant differences were found between them either in connection with the degree of well-being of family relations or in connection with the experience of married life, or, depending on the characteristics of sex spouses.Therefore, we will focus only on the possible trends to changes in the hierarchy of family values, which can be regarded as testable hypotheses for further research.In women, these trends are:

1) underestimation of marrying sexual intercourse when compared with in the successful marriage and families in conflict;

2) the significance of the fall of the value of "external social activity";the most significant is in marrying, the least - in conflict families;consisting in a happy marriage in an intermediate position;

3) underestimation of the value of marrying the birth and upbringing of children in comparison to the other two groups to assess its equally high;

4) a higher score psychotherapeutic role of family relationships in conflict families compared to the other two groups.

for male groups can suggest the following trends:

1) a lower estimate such important values ​​as "parenting", with those who are in a happy marriage than the other two groups;

2) the significance of the fall of domestic relations sequentially from marrying to those who are in a happy marriage, and then to conflict families;

3) consecutive increase in the importance of sexual relations by marrying a conflict families;consisting in a happy marriage in an intermediate position;

4) an increase in the importance of the value of "external social activities" from entering into marriage to conflict families and then to those who are in a happy marriage.

comparing the hierarchy of family values ​​all men with a hierarchy of women's values ​​shows that, despite the lack of significant differences between them (R = 0,969, significant at the 1% level), women in the first place of importance put the value of "the organization of leisure as a sphere of self-realization anddevelopment of the personality ", and the second -." birth "and education of children"Men, on the contrary, in the first place put the value of "the birth and upbringing of children", and the second -. "Organization of leisure as a sphere of self-realization and personal development"Considering the data obtained in the study of VA Sysenko, when 36.4% of women who are married, have indicated that most of all they are not satisfied with the ability to organize the rest of their husbands and family leisure, we suggest that in families where husbandsThey do not know how high the importance of the values ​​of his wife, it can act as one of the real causes of conflict on the socio-psychological level.The rest of the hierarchy of the family values ​​of men and women is the same and is as follows: the third place is occupied by the value of "external to the family of social activity", followed by "emotional and therapeutic communication," "household services", "intimate communication", "visual appeal of the wife. "We believe that the resulting hierarchy of family values ​​can be considered as characteristic for the young couple.