The sociological approach to the study of family relationships

The family microsociology task of studying family relationships is solved with the help of social and psychological methods, but is not limited to the purely psychological analysis of the family as a small group of species.Formation and destruction of family unity, community, unity at all stages of the family life cycle, the operation of a sense of family we, as the center of family life, the analysis of the specificity of relations between parents and children, brothers and sisters, husbands and wives, family members with the microenvironment of kinship - are the main directionsmicrosociological research.

At the heart of the sociological approach to family relations is of interest to the configurations of role interactions.The social structure in the process of modernization of the role of social change and the relationship between them, which affects family Microsociology captures the dynamics due to the transformation of family roles of interpersonal relationships in the family.Unlike ps

ychology, focused mainly on the analysis of the emotional family relations in the context of the stability of the family, sociology of the family focused on the role and structure of its interaction with the system of interpersonal contacts.

Psychologist primarily interested in the role of interpersonal processes of interpersonal perception and family attractions.Sociologist same applies to interpersonal relations as a background, is revealed through the specifics of family conflict and fret features integration vreditelstva- marriage - kinship. "The degree of harmonization of family roles (parent - married - related) and their degree of normative distancing from nonfamily roles - that's the focus of sociological interest in terms of methodology and research methods.How to measure the authority of parents and socialization of children in relations parents - children;how to explore dominance in dyadic relations of spouses and family communication, in the patterns of intergenerational interactions;what sociometric techniques to obtain data on interpersonal conflict marital relations in connection with the solicitation contradictions of family and professional roles of men and women - these questions are most relevant today.

huge number of techniques and procedures developed in sociology and psychology, devoted to specific aspects of family sociological dimension, but systematization of this extensive research techniques within the sociological approach is not completed.

Usually kinship relations are investigated with the help of tools, fixing structures related communication (involvement in related interactions, frequency of contact, the solidarity of kinship).It uses indexes oriented kinship and extended family, familism scales, mutual aid and support, the preferred spatial dispersal of relatives, relationship quality indicators (cohesion index - of conflict, the importance of the extended family as the reference group).Here is an example

familism scales:

.1.What do you think, should I have to pay for children under the age of 16 years for their work in the family?

2. In your opinion, should the working children under the age of 21 years and living in the family to give all parents a salary?

3. Who should care for elderly parents - their children or the government?

4. If your parents are advised not to marry the girl you choose, whether you marry her?

5. Should the children create their own family, to live with their parents?

6. What do you think, is it possible to marry someone of a different religious faith?

7. Is it possible to enter into a marriage with a person of another nationality?

8. Could you make her son a partner of your company?

9. Do you enjoy your son's intention to follow in your professional footsteps?

10. Should I consult on important family matters with close relatives (uncle, aunt, cousin (sulphate or sister).

Methods study the relations between parents and children are also extremely varied and are built mainly on the issues of direct and combinations thereof, or on judgmentsprojective and direct action are some measurement areas:. the regulatory and functional solidarity and integration, the similarities and differences of values, interpersonal perception of potential support from family members, the quality of interactions in the family (feelings of closeness, intimacy, understanding, communication, trust and respect to themselves. on the other and the other in the family, the frequency of communication between family members) Here is one of the scales on the interaction of parents and children (for each item should be noted the frequency of interaction - almost never, once a year, several times a year, every month,week):

1. Rest and recreation outside the home (cinema, picnics, travel, swimming, hunting, etc.)...

2. Short visits.

3. Family celebrations and gala dinners, in which the whole family.

4. Small family holidays due to birthdays and anniversaries.

5. The joint discussion of important issues.

6. The religious activity of any type.

7. The writing of letters.

8. Joint dinners

9. Communication by phone.

10. The exchange of gifts.

11. All sorts of help from their parents to children.

12. Help children to parents.

STUDY matrimonial compatibility BASED interpersonal perception of family roles

extremely large number of scales, tests, and procedures created for the latching relationship in marital dyad.In addition to the weight indexes of marital happiness and satisfaction with marriage, there are questionnaires to determine the extent of marital adjustment and mutual adaptation.One of the first methods of marital compatibility is offered by Ernest Burgess and his assistants questionnaire consisting of 36 questions and direct "paspor-Titschko".As a result of the responses was calculated fitness score, and then dyad falls into one of 9 groups.Due to the limited scope of this tutorial, this profile is not given.But this type of questionnaires, and now a lot of us.For all these surveys are characterized by a combination of several questions on the same theme, and the calculation of the average values ​​of all sorts of indexes of marital satisfaction or adaptation.

Depending on the popularity of certain theories in an era of change every research criteria marriage adaptability and change accordingly asked questions content.If the tests are used, the theories of change affects the interpretation of the data.However, one must admit that there is still no technically as simple and convenient procedures for the measurement of the marital relationship, such as sociometric technique.It is inapplicable to the family due to the fact that the couple have chosen each other, and children are deprived of this freedom by the very fact of his birth choice.Of course, you can modify the shape of sociometric choice for measuring intra-relations, to come up with some new selection criteria or some hypothetical situation in which the choice of the family members of each other would be quite reasonable and realistic.Nevertheless, orthodox Sociometry choice of people in the group in the degree of sympathy - antipathy emotional preferences in the family is not feasible.

Therefore, in psychology taken a lot of interesting attempts to create a fundamentally new approaches to the measurement of conjugal and family relationships, which over time can be used in family sociology.But these new tests do not solve the problems facing the sociological measurement of the degree of coincidence of role and interpersonal patterns of family communication.As a technique of this kind in 1970, Antonov has been provided a method for studying the compatibility of spouses by mutual similarity of their ideas on the implementation of each of its socio-cultural family roles.This technique is well tested in a number of pilot studies of a few hundred pairs obtained with the help of the results correlate with those of some similar procedures.Various aspects of the methodology developed by a student of the psychological, sociological and philosophical faculty of Moscow State University (from 1972 to 1993. Was protected on this topic a few tens of theses).

To measure the marital relationship by the survey due to the inevitability of uncontrolled interactions in the system CH-UN-OH is better to abandon direct questions.As noted above, CD technology best fits the requirements projective procedures.Inclusion in the various social phenomena I, which is attached to a huge role in the family microsociology and Social Psychology, in LED technology is embodied by measuring the degree of identification I have with certain objects of the social world.Variability of values ​​between I and D identifiable with EGO objects reflects the specifics of individual perception.Hence, as if by itself suggests the use of the method of inclusion in the I on the basis of DM to the field of the relationship of the spouses.At the same time it should be noted that the specific objectives of family sociology to study the interpersonal dynamics requires special attention to the social and cultural roles of parenthood - marriage - kinship.

Thus, the realization of the idea of ​​measuring the degree of involvement in family roles I initially faced only with technical problems, since the individual blocks of the measurement procedure and are actively exploited recognized in social psychology meaningful interpretation.A comparison with the I-relevant (appropriate) family lifestyle objects speaks of the importance attached by the personality of this aspect of family life.When dealing with diabetes it turns out that for the detection of personal meanings not necessarily know what I represent and to compare them with the object.SD Technology is indifferent to absolute, transcendental meaning of evaluated objects - an important difference in the estimates.Skillful handling these differences can help to identify the individual and the family and all that anything more than attempts to direct penetration into the deep essence the same person.

Comparing with the family I am a father, wife, sister, grandchild, and so on. E., Self-esteem get their own performance skills in a particular role.Giving to assess the same objects, the role of all family members can learn the characteristics of interpersonal perception of these roles.Under certain conditions (which will be discussed below) mutual interpersonal perceptions indicators are indicators of the actual performance of certain roles family members.Attraction dispositional discourse allows us to understand that the more I included in any family role, the stronger the identification with the role I have.This means that the person solving the problem of the choice of action, says to himself: "I'll do it because as a father I can not do this, or cease to respect themselves and become somebody else, not himself, that is..I will not have I do. "I clutch with a father makes it impossible for the individual to submit his ego out of this role.From all the definitions for the different family situations are not made from the standpoint of any abstract or I'm handsome bachelor, and with his father's point of view.Described is now a socio-psychological mechanism reveals the essence of the definition of situations, dramatically different from the rational choice of the best of the alternatives, with the clarification that I identify with multiple roles and adopt the strategy of behavior dictated by the integral I, somehow connecting, terminating all of its most importantroles (family and nonmarital).With the predominance of family roles personified sense to expect from I profamily rulings.When superiority roles opposite sense, many family situations will be evaluated very differently I, detached from everything, typical of a family man.

What family roles should be selected for their interpersonal perception of spouses?First parent "father - mother" and married "husband - wife".Roles of kinship, conjugal relations dimension of place, whereas in the study of family relationships in general, they are obligatory.Because the degree of identification with the role I have a possibility to evaluate the actual performance of family roles spouses is required to complement the role of the four named others.In the language of everyday life and speech and there firmly established social role of "family man", has no feminine equivalent.It has to, apparently, closer communion of family roles function of women in culture.In modern times a woman is not so rigidly connected with the world of the family, however, this fact has not yet found its linguistic realization.Therefore it was necessary to the socio-cultural role of "family man" to come up with a synonym for women.Trial and error has been selected, and not very successful, the role of "housewife" has a somewhat different meaning than the word "family man."The phrase "housewife" was rejected, t. To. It is too close to the negative assessments in the public mind housework, the word "housekeeper."Mistress in this sense - a broader concept, remote from unwanted, negative evaluation.

Another role of "head of household" was a tribute to the time - was actively discussed in the press, in daily life problem of leadership in the family, women and uncertainties that role to men, especially in urban environments.By the way, this role is included in all census (except the last), and because the population had experience in the interpretation of the primacy of the family in the context of the statistical agency instructions.In addition, the role of "head of household" was comfortable and that fit perfectly with the tender point of view.

As for the marital relationship important aspect related to sexual behavior, the methodology included the role of men are women.They allow, on the one hand, to determine the extent to which the husband and wife identify themselves and their spouse with this sexual role, the extent to retain the attractiveness of each other, which is important for spouses to know with the experience.On the other hand, the preponderance of the significance of these gender roles of parent (or vice versa) could be one of the characteristics of the marriage alliance.

Thus, in order to avoid increase in the survey form and to reduce the time for its completion have been selected for the role of the husband - wife, mother - his father, head of the family, the family man - housewives, men - women.Additionally, in order to implement them according to the degree of identification assessment, introduced the word I and the phrase "my husband" for women and "my wife" to their husbands.The pilot surveys were also used words, he - she is called to replace the phrase.However, there was found to be unacceptable as a substitute for - the focus here is described a technique to measure the compatibility of spouses require a specific assessment of each spouse (and the objects "it - it" did not meet that goal).

Objects "my - I - my husband - wife" were the most vulnerable in the sense that the required specific assessment scales DARE your matrimonial partner.Therefore, immediately raised the requirements for the selection of scales: they had to be completely neutral and to remove any hint of direct assessment of the individual.This problem, strictly speaking, fundamentally unsolvable, t. To. The CD technique is based on an assessment of and without this meaningless.But this technique is not repeated, and "head-on" evaluation veiled some uncertainty antonyms.Therefore, the selection of possible neutral scales for personality assessment.By the way, the procedure for determining the respondent's relationship to himself and the people around them on the scales of diabetes is close by, essentially, morenovskoy sociometry.

It should be noted that, in assessing themselves or their spouse, for example, on the scale of "fast - slow", the respondent can literally understand the procedure and proportion all with the speed of the reaction, or a walk, or a speed ascent up the social ladder - has nomatter what the specific meaning imbedded man when he evaluates himself as something more fast than slow.What would under this or understood - it is always correct from a subjective point of view.What is important is the difference in on this scale between the compared objects estimates.This search for such differences is the essence of inclusion method I (of respondent and I have the image of his wife) of various family roles.

to attract to the study of those respondents who, because of their protective activity motifs around see a threat to their I Ch.Osgud and his colleagues used a veiled system of gradation scale - not 3-2-1-0-1-2-3,1-2-3-4-5-6-7 and where clearly labeled 0, the line of transition from "fast" to "slow".