Reproduction of seeds and spores
Propagation by seed - is sexual reproduction, in which there is "shuffling" of genetic material, which is of great importance to the selection and allows you to bring plants with desirable traits.Although latent in such breeding opportunities, indoor decorative floriculture resort to it rarely (only in cases where you can not vegetative propagation), since it is quite troublesome: in seeds of many ornamental plants is very low germination rate, which can be as low as 2 -3%.But open ground plants primarily annuals usually reproduce exactly.
Plants may be the most diverse in size and shape seeds that makes many of the features of working with them.Not the same, and the timing of their seeding: For some types of seeds sown immediately upon reaching maturity, others - in the spring or fall.Some require a special pre-treatment - seedbed preparation.Most often it is necessary to carry out, oddly enough, not for the full Exotics: seeds of latitudes, close to the moderate (same dry subtropics), winter stay at r
scarification can be done by friction (sandpaper is used for this), "surgically" - with a scalpel, the seeds of many legumes (such as Sophora) pour boiling water.Another technique
preplant seed treatment is stratified in which artificially change the rest condition: the seeds are mixed with wet sand or other substrate and incubated for about a month (depending on the particular type) at a constant temperature slightly above freezing (about 5 ° C).
seeds of plants are sown in the spring.
Seeds of most species with large seeds are sown in the autumn pre-etch or decontaminated by any available means.
seeds of tropical plants tend to quickly lose viability, they should be sown immediately after ripening.In all cases, it is desirable disinfection as pathogens and pests can easily destroy the newly sprouted plants.
There are different methods of seed disinfection.The most simple and fast - it is thermal disinfection, where the seeds are soaked in very warm water (50 ° C) for one hour.Chemical disinfection is called etching.For him, use a variety of chemicals from all known potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), red lead, sulfur to many special protectants, which range today is very rich and varied (methods for their use are indicated on the packaging).For plants sown in open ground, chemical decontamination - a more reliable method, since it helps to protect plants against insects and more, and create the conditions to meet all requirements of health, there is simply impossible.
It is best to sow seeds in boxes or cell, and for species with small seeds - in pots, which, firstly, can be pre-disinfected detergents, and secondly, it is easy to move, thus regulating the dosage of illumination.The soil in them should be fairly fertile.The most commonly used ground from humus and sod land with the addition of sand;but the requirements for different types of soil are not the same: for tropical better to take a mixture of peat land of sand, some tree and shrub species suitable substrate is made from sawdust and so on.In all cases, the bottom of the container it is desirable to lay drainage layer of gravel or other coarse inert material such as soil acidification detrimental for germinating seeds.
Large seeds are buried in the ground to a depth of not more than triple the thickness of the seeds themselves, small seeded on the surface without sealing.Not bad, if the top cover of mulch of fine sand or sawdust.Mulching reduces the drying out of the soil and prevents the formation of crust on it.Small seeds can simply close the sheet of paper.
After placing the seeds in the ground closed polyethylene container and placed in a dark place.In the open field with the same goals or put up shields poured a thick layer of mulch.Shading is necessary to support pre-emergence, but the young plants should not be put under the open sunlight.Exception - cactus seeds, they can germinate and light.
Young seedlings are very delicate, so very important to observe the irrigation (humidity should be maintained uniform and constant) the correct mode for them and water them gently to a jet of water is not washed off the seeds are small and do not change the depth of embedding medium.Would be a useful device for constant moisture, you can use the sprayer.If the seeds are germinated in a pot, a convenient way would be through the humidifying tray.
It is equally important to respect and the right temperature conditions.For subtropical species enough room temperature for tropical species, it should be mentioned: 25-28 ° C.Improperly that all plant seeds higher the temperature, the better.It is important to maintain consistency.
If seedlings sprouted thickly or too close to each other, they need to dive.
Propagation spores typical for ferns, horsetails and moss.
Sow their disputes in the pre-calcined light loose moist peat and sand zemlesmes on a flat surface and cover with plastic film IPT glass until the seedlings.Drainage is required at the bottom.Optimum temperature - 22 - 25 ° C.