cloning

August 12, 2017 17:51 | Color Reproduction

Vegetative reproduction - is to increase the number of organisms of this type by means of separation from the body vegetative (vegetative body is a big part of any organism: everything except the sex cells or organs) of viable parts of a further regeneration of the parts to the whole of the subsidiary body.Even some of the lower animals can reproduce this way, such as amoeba.In the case of flowers vegetative propagation by means of stem and leaf cuttings, cuttings, parts of the bushes, tubers and rhizomes.In industrial and laboratory breeding of certain species of plants are used as a method of tissue, when instead of the whole body or a piece of tissue is taken to escape, but at home to propagate plants with it impossible.

Something frightening seem to many the word "cloning", "clone", and in fact, from a purely biological point of view, is a clone of any appearance of a new plant by vegetative means.But artificial vegetative propagation respectively is essentially a clone: ​​genetic material, then the

parent and daughter plants remains the same!The only exception is often attributable to crop the literature for vegetative propagation of a particular vaccine.

Most often we meet with cuttings.Cutting the stem is called the rooting parts (stem cuttings) or leaf (leaf stalks).However, only very few species can be of grafted directly into the ground, most of them require more care.They often constitute a special mixture of land, but rooting convenient to use well calcined sand or substrates, fillers (such as vermiculite), allowing to track the status of the lower sections: they should neither rot or dry out.

best time for propagation of many ornamental plants - from mid-June to early July, when the young shoots are lignified, other preferred of grafted in February - March, but there are species for which the most favorable period will fall, and some shrub and tree species altogetherbetter to take root in January - February.

preform green cuttings better produce from late spring to mid-summer, harvesting hardwood cuttings - during plant dormancy.Keep the cuttings can be in the refrigerator or on the balcony at a temperature of 2-6 ° C in plastic bags, and some even in glass jars, sealed with a thick cloth.Instead of normal tissue, and packages can be used which appeared recently in the sale of special membranes.Nevertheless, the probability of successful rooting just take cuttings is much higher: it is very difficult to completely protect the long stored stem from wilting.

average length of stem cuttings should be 5 -15 cm (they should fit at least 1-2 internodes), and the length of some hardwood cuttings, and up to 20-25 cm, it should be more kidney (at least 2-3).Leaf cuttings of herbaceous ornamental plants may consist of only a part of the leaf, while the shrub or tree species, it is desirable to take cuttings from the "promenade" - a part of the shoot.

Separate the cuttings from the mother plant with a sharp knife or razor blade, but sometimes tear.The latter method is not very desirable, because it can cause excessive damage to the plants (relatively safe way to separate the side shoots of some plants).Use it often due to the prevalent superstition, though it is best to take root in the house is not bought and stolen plant.Alas, only a few species can be treated in this way is painless.

If the plant has mlechniki and cut stalks covered with droplets of secretions (ie, they contain juice), it must be washed in warm water.There are other ways: remove the juice with a damp sponge, leave the stalks in a cool place for several hours or hold slice a few seconds over an open flame matches, lighters or candles.

razvodochny In a pot or box to plant the cuttings should be shallow (up to 5 cm) at a distance of about 4 cm apart.Then they are sprayed with water and cover for most types of film: for cuttings desirable increased atmospheric humidity.As I mentioned above, for certain types of difficult rooting of cuttings without treatment phytohormones auxin series.

basis successful propagation is to comply with the best mode temperature, lighting and humidity.

substrate moisture (water should be warmer than the room) should be about 70% humidity for cuttings optimally - about 90%, but, as always, watering is not necessary to get too carried away: the cuttings from excessive moisture may rot.If you grow them under frames or film, be sure to ventilate the area from time to time.

For cold-resistant species is sufficient to maintain a constant temperature of about 18 - 20 ° C, that is close to room temperature.For heat-loving crops the soil is best to warm up: some do not normally take root if the temperature does not exceed normal at 3-4 ° C.In addition, except for cuttings particularly light-loving species, it is desirable (and some optional) pritenyat.

If done correctly, a couple of weeks (the exact timing depends on the type of plant) appear roots.After rooting cuttings are seated in small pots.

reproduction by layering in room conditions is used relatively rarely, most often with him dealing, cultivating an open ground plants: this method can be applied mainly to the shrub and tree forms.However, many ampelnye plants (such as ivy) can be successfully propagated by layering, ie lateral shoots, which bends and added dropwise the ground, and after the formation of the roots cut off.To keep the strains under the layer of soil, it can be pinned pin (preferably wooden).

in turn slips shoots with well-developed leaves about 30 cm long. If the stem is long, for example in Ivy, from it we can make several cuttings.

citrus and some other plants can be propagated in a similar, yet some other way.On the branches are cut a narrow ring of bark or cut into her windows (sometimes simply pulls the wire, making only small incisions), and naked place imposes or blindfold of moist moss, or a bag without a bottom, or a container with a small amount of soil so that they are wellwrapped around a window or cut area.Somewhere in a month or more in the treated area of ​​the stem will form adventitious roots;when they get stronger, this part of the plant can be cut off and planted in a pot (in the case of patch of moss, it is placed into the ground together with delenki).This method of reproduction is called air layering.

Another method of vegetative propagation is used to strongly expand bushy plants (mainly Dekorativnolistvennye) - a division of the bush.It is carried out as follows: the mother plant from the pot carefully removed, freed almost entirely of earthen coma (it should be wet to the ground more easily separated from the roots), and cut with a sharp knife into pieces.Plants with well developed root system and can separate them by hand.

After this incision or breaking sprinkled with charcoal to the wound faster "dried up" and delenki planted in individual containers.

Watering subsidiary plants need more often than usual.If the form has no contraindications to the spraying, it must be conducted.

Very similar divide the tubers.They are planted in sandy loose soil and cut into pieces with a knife after the formation of germs so that each part was a germ or bud, then dried (slices sprinkled with charcoal better) and planted in pots.

Reproduction bulbs in most cases is a natural form of vegetative reproduction: kids (small bulbs subsidiaries) are formed on the mother bulb yourself during transplant bulbous species simply separated and placed into another container, at first in the sand, and then the appropriate zemlesmes.Sometimes the formation of children is provoked artificially by cutting the stems bulbs or radial slits: if they can form a lot.

first five days of watering the tubers do not need to split, so as not to bend the damaged surface, and then they should be quite richly moisturize.

Many species can be propagated by grafting - engraftment of the one plant to another.Although in strictly scientific terms, this is not quite reproduction for many species, it gives excellent results: it helps to increase the resistance of plants and enhance their growth.Typically, vaccination is done in order to give the plant a foreign strong root system.

The best results are achieved when the scion and rootstock belong to different species of the same family.(In any case, it is necessary to remember the terms: the plant, part of which is grafted is called a scion, and that to which are grafted, - rootstock.)

There are three main ways of grafting and several modifications thereof: budding (kidney engraftment under bark), the inoculationcutting and ablaktirovanie - splice is not separated from the branches of the stem.

When budding take a kidney from the so-called shield - a small part of the stem.On rootstock make a T-shaped incision (preferably special okulirovochnym knife), folded crust aside and slid under her shield edge, and then pressed and wrapped with a narrow ribbon.If a portion of the shield extends above the upper boundary of the cut, it is better to cut.The kidney can not affect at primatyvanii tape.For strapping can be used polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, lime bark, rubber bands, cords and the like material, which tightly covers the site of inoculation.

caught on whether the kidney, can be determined in two weeks if she has darkened, and the leaf petiole at the touch does not fall, the vaccine failed.Kidney should be green.For budding

best time - August, because the soil at that time sufficiently developed, and the bark is easily separated from the timber.

Species handle vaccines differ in the way of joining the scion to the rootstock.It is possible to do an oblique cut, wedge, or under the bark handle vrasschep.

Apical shoots of scions should have 2-3 buds.From the mother plant can be cut off in advance.

Vaccination oblique cut made in the event that the scion and rootstock have approximately the same diameter.At the same angle sectioned, and then combine them so as to leave no gaps and primatyvayut.

With a big difference in the thickness of the stem is used vaccination wedge.The cropped at the correct height scion cut wedge-shaped groove, repeating the shape of the scion cut, and combine parts.

If the difference in the diameter of the scion and the rootstock is very high, it is better to make the cut on the sides horizontally rootstock vertical cuts, peel back the bark and insert the scion cut obliquely (or grafts), then tie a ribbon.

When vaccination vrasschep as horizontally cut rootstock is cut vertically in the middle and is cleaved, and cleft graft is inserted obliquely cut.This option is often used for cacti.At the top of the grafted cacti.

best period for instilling Cherenkov escape - April - May.

If the scion and rootstock bad prizhivlyayutsya to each other, it is possible to inoculate convergence (ablaktirovanie).At the same time closely spaced plant areas cut bark from wood and primatyvayut each other sections.When they grow together, the scion is cut from the bottom, and the stock - on top.