Anomalies of development of age and situation
About 10% of all diseases of the body make up the diverse and numerous defeats century.Many of these diseases cause severe violation of their functions.
Century Development begins at the end of pre-natal development of the child of the 2nd month.When this occurs the formation of skin folds, which grow towards each other.Approximately a 4-5-th month of fetal life, these folds are fused together.Shortly before the birth of a fusion of the upper and lower eyelid is subjected to reverse development, leading to the formation of a normal eye crack.Violation of this process leads to various anomalies.Anomalies of position and age due to the effect on the child of many factors, which operated during the period of bookmarks and age.Anomalies of age may wear a familial and inherited.
ablephary - complete congenital absence of eyelids and the eye slit.The lids are replaced leather, which can be felt underdeveloped eyeball.This anomaly is usually bilateral, but in the literature there are descriptions of cases o
ankyloblepharon - congenital fusion of the upper and lower eyelids.This disease is extremely rare.Much more often it occurs after ankyloblepharon ulcers, lesions and burns eyelids.Fusion may be complete or partial.In the latter case, the upper and lower eyelids are thin or thick scars of skin tensile yarns.
very rare anomaly of a mikroblefaron - a significant shortening of the century in the vertical dimension.At the same time one can not completely close his eyelids, resulting in an incomplete eye closure - lagophthalmos.
Congenital defect century (coloboma) observed slightly more often.This defect is usually formed on the upper eyelid, often in the middle portion thereof.Sometimes this pathology may occur in the lower or both eyelids.Coloboma (Ages tissue defect) is triangular in shape with the base at the edge of the eyelid.Its severity can range widely: from a small recess at the edge of the century to a significant defect of all its layers.Often from the top to the eyeball colobomas stretch skin bridges, greatly limiting its movement.
Among the congenital anomalies century, the most frequently observed epicanthus - semilunar fold of skin on either side of the nasal bridge, covering the inner canthus.Epicanthus often combined with congenital ptosis of the upper eyelid.This man can not fully open the eye slit on the affected side.Also epicanthus often combined with strabismus or shortening the eye slit in the horizontal direction (blepharophimosis), which in most cases is caused by fusion of the upper and lower eyelid margins.At strongly expressed epicanthus inner canthus (closest to the nose) is closed so that the limited field of view.In these cases the surgical treatment is necessary not only for cosmetic reasons, but also to improve the visibility.
blepharophimosis - shortening the eye slit in the horizontal direction, usually characterized by fusion of the upper and lower eyelid margins at the outer corner of the eye.As a result, the pressure on the eyeball age blood circulation in the blood vessels of the body, which leads to deterioration of the power of the cornea.With such malformations performed surgery.
blepharochalasis - expansion of the skin of the upper eyelids, where it is collected in a small thin folds and hangs over the edge of the century.This anomaly of the visual organ is removed only by surgery.
ptosis - drooping of the upper eyelid.This anomaly condition is the most common age.Congenital ptosis may occur due to underdevelopment of the muscles, lifting the upper eyelid, or as a result of nerve damage involved in carrying out the movements of the eye muscles.If the damage of the oculomotor nerve ptosis century, accompanied by restricted mobility of the eyeball.Less pronounced ptosis observed in lesions of the sympathetic nerve, as it supplies the only part of the muscle that raises the upper eyelid.Ptosis may be complete or partial, as well as one- or two-sided.When the upper eyelid ptosis quite early wrinkles on the forehead: a man forced to throw back his head and forehead namorschivat.
Distinguish III degree of ptosis.
I degree (partial ptosis). In this case, the upper lid covers the upper third of the cornea to the pupil.
II degree (partial ptosis). In this century defeat of the cornea is covered up to half of the pupil.
III degree (complete ptosis) .In this case, the lid closes the entire pupil.
With a significant omission of the upper eyelid, visual acuity on this side is lowered, and the boundary of the field of view of more narrowed, as there are unfavorable conditions for the functioning of the retina.Due to the decrease in sharpness and the field of view at this anomaly often develop strabismus, which is carried out to remove a range of activities, including both conservative and surgical treatment.Operative treatment of upper eyelid ptosis is conducted not only for cosmetic purposes but also in order to prevent the subsequent reduction of visual acuity.
To prevent loss of visual acuity and development of strabismus at the upper eyelid ptosis needed during waking hours to raise the upper eyelid (upper eyelid or both in the case of bilateral lesions).These exercises are to be performed within one year after diagnosis.To do this, one end of the strip of adhesive tape is fixed at the edge of the century, and the other is attached to the brow area with a raised century.Eyelid lift so that when flashing remained almost possibility of complete closure.During sleep plaster is removed to avoid damage to the skin age.
In congenital ptosis surgery is usually carried out at the age of three years, because at this time is to determine the size and shape of the eye slits and face.