Endocrine ophthalmopathy

August 12, 2017 17:51 | Genetic Diseases

This complication is tissue damage, are located around the globe, which is caused by dysfunction of the immune system.When this disease occurs dystrophic changes in various structures of the eye, such as the eye muscles.The mechanism of this complication is the fact that antibodies produced in the organism for thyroid hormones contribute to the development of inflammatory changes in adipose tissue located in the back of the eyeball orbit.Inflammation leads to an increase in fat.The above changes result in the development of "pucheglazija" and degeneration of the eye muscles.The disease occurs in three stages.

I stage is characterized by the appearance of swelling of the eyelids in humans there are complaints of pain in the eyes, watery eyes.

II stage is characterized by the addition of a complaint to the double vision when looking at objects (diplopia).

III stage is the most severe and is characterized by incomplete closure of the optic fissure, as well as pronounced degenerative changes of the eyebal

l, such as atrophy of the optic nerve and the appearance of ulcers on the cornea.

Signs endocrine ophthalmopathy develop gradually.First, changes occur only on the part of one eye.With the progression of the disease affected the other eye.It begins to worry the feeling of pressure, localized for the eyeballs.As the progression of the process of feeling is enhanced.Joins sensitivity to light, pain in the eyes.As time develops exophthalmos ( "exophthalmia"), which usually leads to incomplete closure lids.By increasing the volume of adipose tissue of the orbit is a violation of the outflow of blood from the eye, which manifests the appearance of swelling around the eyeball.Also, the progression of the process leads to compression of the optic nerve, which is manifested impaired color perception, visual field constriction and swelling of the optic nerve, which is detected during the inspection ophthalmologist.Treatment of endocrine ophthalmopathy includes mandatory treatment of diffuse toxic goiter, or rather the state of thyrotoxicosis.It is necessary to achieve a stable state of normalization of thyroid hormone levels in the blood.In the case of the second stage endocrine ophthalmopathy glucocorticoid drugs administered at a dose that is selected in each case strictly individual physician.The drug is taken in the assigned dose for two weeks.Then, the dosage is reduced by half, and gradually brought to 5 mg per day.Treatment maintenance dose of the drug usually lasts for 2-3 months.In case of failure of treatment with glucocorticoids (a hormonal drug) go to treatment with the help of X-rays.With the threat of vision loss surgery is performed, in which the removal of producing some eye socket walls.