The causes of diabetes type I
Diabetes mellitus type I is a disease of autoimmune nature (ie. E. Is the result of violations of the human immune system), which can develop as a result of exposure to a viral infection on the body, as well as under the influence of other environmental factorsaffecting the existing background of hereditary predisposition to diabetes.Under the influence of adverse factors in the pancreatic tissue is a change β structure-cells that produce insulin.This leads to development of autoimmune process, whereby antibodies are produced in the body's own cells of the pancreas.Under their influence, damaged β -cells are destroyed.Reducing the body's resistance to glucose is observed in the death of about 75% β -cells of the pancreas.If this background, there is a development of a stressful situation, for example surgery or introduction into the organism of an infectious agent, the first signs of diabetes.If affected 80-90% β -cells, the type 1 diabetes manifests itself without affecting other adverse factors.
structure β -cells of the pancreas can vary under the influence of a number of factors, which may be a viral infection, the influence of hereditary factors, environmental factors, and the nature of power.The leading role in the development of diabetes belongs influence of infectious agents, as evidenced by the fairly frequent determination of the blood of persons with the disease antibodies to viruses such as Rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, mumps virus, Coxsackie virus, encephalomyelitis virus, and others.In that case, if a woman had been ill with rubella during pregnancy, approximately 25% of her child for life developing type I diabetes.There is also evidence of the existence of a genetic predisposition to the development of type I diabetes, but its role has not yet been fully elucidated.In the case of type I diabetes at the father the chance of developing the same disease in a child less than 5%.In the presence of the disease probability in the mother does not exceed 2.5%.In the case of type I diabetes in both parents the chance of developing the disease increases a child and is about 20%.The hereditary nature of the disease is observed only at 5 to 10% of children with diabetes.
first manifestations of diabetes mellitus type I appear before the age of 40 years, and most often in 14 years.Character set of symptoms and in each case an individual.In diabetes occurs resulting reduction in insulin in the pancreas, which leads to an increase in blood sugar levels.This increases the amount allocated for human urine of the day.In addition, it is driven by the thirst center in the brain, which explains the increased thirst in this disease.Normally when reducing the amount of glucose in the blood it is amplified formation of glycogen in the liver.This mechanism is intended to cover the energy cost of the organism.
Diabetes mellitus type I is characterized by a low content of insulin in the blood or a complete lack of it.When this does not occur and normal formation of glycogen reserves in the liver it.In the case of reducing the amount of glucose in the blood of the process of formation of liver glycogen occurs.However, the activation of the process of formation of glucose from other substances that can lead to serious disruption of the state, up to the formation ketoatsidoticheskaya coma.Insulin normally leads to an increase in protein synthesis and body fat, t. E. Has anabolic effects (stimulates the synthesis of substances).In the case of a reduction of blood insulin is a violation of data flow processes, which leads to weight loss, appearance of progressive muscle weakness and reduced work capacity, until it is completely lost.Lack of insulin in the body results in the breakdown of protein and formation processes incorporating glucose from amino acids by their appearance in free form in the bloodstream.There is a decrease in muscle mass.Disrupts the supply of oxygen to the tissues of the body, ie. E. Hypoxia.Violation of metabolic processes and the development of ketoatsidoticheskaya coma may occur against the background of various infections or injuries.Increased blood glucose levels at the same time causes an increase in the amount of urine and dehydration.With a lack of insulin in the bloodstream is the activation decay of body fat, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of free fatty acids in the blood.Since diabetes disturbed liver fat synthesis process, the free fatty acid included in the metabolic process.Thus in such blood products appear disturbed metabolism as acetone and acetoacetic acid.They are ketone bodies and lead to ketosis, and then ketoacidosis.If the body continues to lose fluid, t. E. Subjected to progressive dehydration occurs ketoatsidoticheskaya coma.Emerging circulating ketone bodies cause peritoneal irritation and the appearance of signs of "acute abdomen", which include primarily an intense sharp pain that spreads throughout the abdomen.Besides, it can appear nausea and vomiting.
Diabetes mellitus type I may occur in children with pyelonephritis or urinary tract infection.After the start of the treatment of diabetes drug insulin over a relatively long period of time doses of the drug can remain small and be even less than 0.3 U / kg.This period of time when the dosage is minimal, denoted remission phase.In the case of the state of development of ketoacidosis insulin having a functionality capable of β -cells of the pancreas is reduced by 10-15%.The use of insulin preparations in this period leads to restoration of function surviving cells.At their expense made to ensure the body's insulin to a minimum.In that case, if you follow the assigned diet and correct dosing of its exercise, remission phase can last for a long period.If the body is stored in the lowest production of insulin, it may be necessary to compensate for the hormone level in the blood.Minimum insulin production in the body for longer than if the treatment of insulin preparations is conducted at the outset of the disease.