Diet therapy for patients with diabetes
In order to achieve the positive effect of the treatment is necessary to comply with the following principles: diet, the implementation of individualized physical activity, use of drugs that lower blood glucose levels.
Diet in diabetes mellitus type I and II have differences.In type II diabetes diet therapy the aim is to reduce body weight.In diabetes type I restriction diet is forced to the quantity and quality of food intake.Diet is necessary in this case to maintain an optimal level of metabolic processes.This diet includes an increase in the amount of carbohydrates to 50-60% of its total energy value.
Carbohydrates have the following effects: reduced adipose tissue resistance to insulin, increase the rate of disposal of glucose into cells.The amount of fat is reduced to 20-30%.The amount of protein is reduced to 10-15%, which leads to slower speed lesion of blood vessels.Carbohydrates which undergo light absorption, are strictly limited.These carbohydrates are sucrose and glucose.
Often used sweeteners.They are divided into 2 groups: natural (caloric) and artificial (non-nutritive).The first group includes fructose, xylitol, sorbitol.The second group of sweeteners include saccharin, acesulfame, cyclamate, L-aspartame, sucralose.
Dietary fibers that make up the vegetables, fruits and cereals, have the ability to lower blood sugar level, which is achieved by accelerating the promotion of food through the intestines.Also, by eating these products reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine and fatty acids.The amount of dietary fiber is not less than 40 g per day.When dieting persons suffering from diabetes mellitus type II, there is a decrease in body weight, which leads to a compensation of metabolic processes.In the case of diabetes mellitus type IIb diet should be low-calorie, with a gradual decrease in energy value.Generally, the caloric content is reduced by 500 kcal / d., Which leads to a reduction in body weight of 1.2 kg per month.If the type II diabetes is combined with adiposity, the calorie intake is reduced by 15-17 kcal / kg of body weight.
In the case of diabetes mellitus type I calculation of the amount of grain held units.Carrying out these calculations necessary to determine the dose of insulin preparations, the introduction of which is carried out before each meal.One bread unit corresponds to the energy value of 10-12 g of carbohydrates.To calculate bread units special tables compiled.Bread units do not reflect the energy value of the food to the full, because when calculating not taken into account the amount of protein and fat.