Lemon

lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burni F..) - small evergreen tree Rutaceae family, with prickly branches and purple young shoots.Elliptic leaves it have a characteristic odor.Flowers white, arranged in the leaf axils.Fruit egg-shaped, with yellow skin and juicy flesh of acid, shared by 8-10 cloves.Lemon has many forms, differing from each other leaves, fruits and so forth. The family Rutaceae.The genus Citrus.

lemon Homeland - South-East Asia, where it grows wild in the mountains.From lemon penetrated into Mesopotamia.In the X century AD the Arabs brought it to Palestine, and from there the crusaders brought back to Italy.The first information about the amateur cultural lemon tree, cultivated in Georgia, refer to the beginning of the XVIII century.Currently lemon diluted in Caucasian subtropical zone.Specific smell of lemon lends contained in the branches, leaves and fruit peel essential oil.In the pulp of a lemon is a lot of citric and malic acid, pectin, potassium, copper, volatile, vitamins C, group B,

P and carotene.The lemon juice is found coumarin izopimpinellin, and peel -flavonovye glycosides, coumarin.

natural climatic conditions: subtropical.

bush (in the wild - a tree);Leaves are opposite, pointed-ovate, leathery;single flowers, white, fragrant (naturally pollinated by insects, in the indoor environment - a brush).

remontant plants.The most common varieties in the rooms - the person Pawlowski and Meyer lemon.

less demanding in the culture than an orange, although the basic features are the same care.

For cultivation in the room conditions, the best variety is a Chinese dwarf lemon Meyer.This is a small (1 - 1.5 m), easily treatable formirovke plant with a rounded compact crown and a very small amount of rough leaves - elliptical, lanceolate, light green in color with a distinctive lemon scent.Buds and flowers are collected in clusters.The color of flowers in white, the outside purple-red color.

Lemons are not explicit period of rest.At its plants at the same time you can see the flowers, ovaries green and yellow fruits.It comes into bearing in the 3 - 4 years after planting in a pot.The flowers and leaves of citrus, including lemon, contain valuable essential oils, which are widely used in the perfume, confectionery, alcoholic beverage industry.

♦ Placement.All year round - in bright sunny rooms.In the summer should make the open air.In winter - keep at a temperature of 3 - 5 ° C.

♦ Care.In the summer watering abundant in the winter - a moderate.Ensure that there is no stagnant water.To increase the humidity is recommended to put the pots on the tray with water or spray regularly.

During the period of growth and development of plants every two weeks to carry out feeding complex mineral fertilizers "Flower" or "Rainbow".Transplant to 5 - 6 years of age held annually, and at a later age 1 every 3 - 4 years.It is best to use soils with high humus content "Rose".Spring otplodonosivshie remove twigs and sick, broken and fat shoots.

♦ Pests and diseases - red spider mite on the fruit may be a silver mite.Soft false Jose scale, whitefly.Among the diseases - root rot, anthracnose, which arise when excessive watering.On secretions of aphids and scale insects can sooty fungus

♦ reproduction - cuttings.Planting cuttings is carried out in early spring.For rooting is best to take one-year matured shoots.

Lemons also multiply by grafting and budding.

Cuttings taken from the matured, but not woody shoots with 5-7 leaves (2 period: March-April and mid-June to mid-July) - fruit in the 4 th year, as rooting shoots pinch out;seed - bearing fruit only in the 10th year, so it is better to grow from the seeds of only the scion;air layering (using mohovaniya cuts) vaccination.

Features: young specimens are transplanted each year, over 5 years - every 2 - 3 years, the old copies - in 6-7 years.Pruning is desired, cut shoots, adversely affecting the shape of the crown and beginning to dry out after fruiting.

Citrus fruits, including lemons, have exceptionally rare property - to give one more seed germination.And one of their amazing feature: after ripening, when the fruit is left hanging on the plant, they are green again and then

requirement to moisture: the summer desirable daily hour-May, moderate watering;winter - depending on the temperature: at high - every five days, cool - once in ten days.You can use tap water.

Temperature: optimum temperature of 25 ° C in summer, winter is not higher than 13 ° C (and can carry large reduction to O ° C);fruiting but can achieve only if the temperature of the flowering period will not extend beyond 15 - 18 ° C.

Light mode: photophilous plant.Optimal southern exposure.

requirement to soil: optimum ground from the turf, leaf, humus and peat land c sand in the ratio 2: 1: 1: 1: 1.Drainage is mandatory.Summer - fertilization every ten days or once every two weeks.Methods of using

Lemons subjected to heat treatment only if there is a risk of their damage.Lemons can be stored for a short time and without canning, because it is destroyed by heat treatment of vitamin C contained in the juice and lemon peel.

Medical lemon quality long been recognized as medicine.And this is the merit of vitamin C, which the lemon and other citrus fruits are especially rich.Nutritionists believe that 60 mg of vitamin C per day will save you from having to go to the doctor.

Vitamin C supports us in an active state -when it is lacking, people become lethargic, inattentive, sleepy.It is well strengthens the immune system and, therefore, is struggling with all the "seasonal" diseases.Recognized ability of this vitamin to resist oxidation processes in the body, which is credited with all the "sins" of aging.Lemon has anti-sclerotic effect, slows down the process of sealing the vessel walls, reduces their permeability and fragility, strengthens their walls.This quality of vitamin C should use those who are prone to varicose veins, suffering pulmonary, nasal, uterine bleeding, and bleeding dogwood.Ascorbic acid contained in the lemon, reduces swelling, soothes, possess reducing properties.She is involved in the regulation of blood coagulation and glucose metabolism, repair damaged tissue and the formation of a number of hormones.Vitamin C is often called the "beauty vitamin": it is involved in the synthesis of collagen - a special substance, which determines the condition of the skin.

Lemon is a powerful anti-aging agent.Prepare a mixture easily.For this 4 lemon juice were mixed with 300 g of grated garlic.Take 1 teaspoon in a glass of water 30 minutes before eating.

Expectant mothers suffering from toxemia, it is recommended to apply a fresh slice of lemon to podlozhechkovoy area for 15-20 minutes.You can secure it bandage for greater reliability.

same young mothers concerned about the lack of milk, healers advised to such means.Grated on a fine grater lemon (with peel), mix with 2 tablespoons cumin seeds and 1/2 cup of sugar, pour a mixture of a glass of warm water and simmer, stirring, over low heat for 8-10 minutes.Insist hour, strain.Take 100 ml three times per day.

When angina is very effective rinsing with lemon juice.In a glass of water is added to the juice of half a lemon and gargles.It is useful and easy to eat it without anything, because lemon is a kind of antiseptic, destroying viruses and bacteria that are in sore throat.

lemon oil tones the autonomic nervous system, effective against vegetative dystonia.Whitens and smoothes the skin, reduces freckles and age spots, eliminates visible vascular pattern, the perfect remedy for dandruff, natural hair bleach, removes brittleness of nails.

Eliminates rashes of various origins, boils, lichens, warts, fissures on the palms and soles, eczema, bleeding gums.Good antiviral Effectively the flu, herpes, chickenpox, viral hepatitis, measles, mumps.

Has antibacterial, antiseptic, bactericidal effect.Relieves fever, promotes the normalization of body temperature.The remedy for headaches, nausea, dizziness caused by cerebral vasospasm, or an overdose of caffeine.

normalizes metabolism and fat utilization, cure obesity, reduces cellulite.It dissolves gallstones and kidney.It rejuvenates blood vessels, has anti-sclerotic effect.Prevents varicose veins and hemorrhoids development.Participates in cleaning the body of toxins, has antianemic action activates white blood cells in the body's defense system, normalizes blood formula.

The use of this oil is incompatible with sunbathing.Methods of application: oil burner - 2-8 drops;into 2-3 drops 2-3 times a day with honey;-2-5 inhalation of droplets;bath, sauna - 2-8 drops;massage- 2-8 drops per 10 g of carrier oil;packs - 2-5 drops.

Lemons are used in the manufacture of confectionery and soft drinks, alcoholic beverage and in the perfume industry.Sour taste and pleasant aroma provide many uses in cooking them.Sliced ​​lemon served with tea, coffee and brandy.As the spices they used in the preparation of various desserts, pastries, sauces, fish, poultry and rice dishes.Lemon juice to improve the taste of dishes: meat, fish, cold dishes, salads.

The greatest number of essential oils includes an outer layer of skin - zest.It is used both fresh and dried.Located under the yellow layer of white skin to eat do not eat, because it is when heated gives it a bitter taste.

Try to cook lemon liqueur recipe it is very simple, but the taste - is incomparable: Cut 2 large lemon into 4 pieces, put them in a bottle with a wide neck (Bank 2 liters), a bit of vanilla, 1 bottle of dry wine and 2 glass of vodka.Close the plug or Jug and place for a week in a dark place.5 tablespoons of sugar dissolved in a small amount of water, pour the syrup into a bottle or jar, add to the strained infusion.Keep in a sealed container for a few more days, until, until the sugar is completely dissolved.The resulting tincture store in a cool dark place.

Lemon wine

12 large lemons, 4.5 liters of boiling water.At 4.5 liters of juice 6 cups sugar, 1 tbsp.teaspoon of yeast.

Cut the lemons into slices.Pour the boiling water and infuse for 3 days.Strain and measure the amount.Add sugar and yeast and put in a warm place (18-24 ° C) for fermentation.After the cessation of bubbling move.Allow to stand for 3 days.Strain.Plug and leave for 12 months.Bottled, sealed and put in a cool dark place for a few months.

In celebration of good cocktails "lemon."The glass on the fine leg put a piece of sugar, pour the lemon juice (20 g), pour the champagne from the top, throw a piece of ice and decorate with a lemon circle.

Citrus salad with cream

Preparation time: 15 min.Per serving 210 kcal 4 servings: 1 lime (or green lemon), 3 parts of honey, fresh leaves of peppermint, 2 oranges, 2 pink grapefruit, 400 g cream yogurt, cinnamon, 1 small grenades

1. For the marinade.half of lime peel cut into thin strips.Squeeze lime juice and 2 tablespoons of mix with 1 teaspoon of honey.A few mint leaves cut into thin strips and add to the mixture.

2. Clean the oranges and grapefruits, free slices of white membranes, pour honey marinade and let stand.

3. Mix the yogurt, 2 teaspoons honey and 1 pinch of cinnamon with the remaining lime juice.Arrange the slices on the plates of oranges and grapefruit peel strips.Remove and sprinkle with pomegranate seeds fruit of them.Pour the yogurt cream and garnish with mint.

Lemon curd

Yield 450 g

2-3 lemon, 100 g butter or margarine, 225 g sugar, 2 eggs, beaten

Thinly cut away peel from lemons.Squeeze out and pass through a strainer juice.Melt the butter in a bowl (margarine) over a saucepan of hot water.

whipping, enter the sugar, lemon rind, juice and eggs.Continue cooking over low heat, stirring occasionally, until thick mass.Pass through a strainer into clean jars, cover with lid, affix the label and put in a cool dark place.

jam

lemons Lemons are washed, cleaned of peel (peel), blanched entirely in boiling water for 15-20 minutes and washed, and simultaneously cooled in cold water.Then lemons cut into slices and they are removed from the grain.Slices pour hot sugar syrup prepared in the same manner as for the jam of oranges, and incubated for 2-4 hours.Cook three reception delay between successive pulping 8-12 hours.The total consumption of sugar per 1 kg of prepared slices of lemon 1.5 kg.

Lime - Green lemon sweet taste.

Lemons sugar

stainless knife cut lemon slices, put in a •, a glass jar layers, sprinkling sugar, fill with sugar on top.Store in a cool place.

Lemon jelly with fruit

Pour water into a saucepan, add sugar (1 lemon - 3 cups of water, 1 cup sugar), disperse and boil.In the hot syrup to put zest, cut from half a lemon, and 25 g of gelatin (beforehand and pressed the damp).Stir the syrup, bring to a boil again and pour the lemon juice Strain hot syrup, cooled slightly, pour into bowls or shape that the bottom was covered by 1 - 2 cm. When it hardens, put the fruit, then pour poluzastyvshim syrup and put the cold.