Chrysanthemum - Beautiful autumn flowering plant that is worldwide appreciated for the beauty of the magnificent farewell autumn colors.
chrysanthemums in Europe were in 1676 brought them to England Dutchman Reed.But the real Chrysanthemum boom began only after 1829, when the famous French gardener Bern grown from the seeds of some unusual colors and exquisite started across-the craze chrysanthemums.In just 50 years, growers in Europe was derived more than 300 varieties.
Chrysanthemum belongs to the family Asteraceae and is a perennial plant of varying height with a thick, sometimes almost woody stems, densely branched with single or slender branches.Chrysanthemum leaves glubokozubchatye, gray-green, hairy.The inflorescence is a basket with a large number of ray flowers (petals), arranged around a center formed tubular flowers.Painting ligule is varied, tubular flowers are usually colored yellow, less often white or color ray flowers.The ratio in the inflorescence reed tubular flowers and determines
Terry inflorescences consist primarily of ray flowers, have semi-double reed flowers occupy not less than five extreme numbers, which are located around the center, in nemahrovyh inflorescence reed flowers are arranged in a row around the disk of tubular
unbent, or hanging, - ligulate flowers are long, bent down towards the inflorescence axis and hang from its edges.
Luchevidnye - blossoms are large, flattened, loose, slabomahrovye, formed long, thin reed flowers, like a needle.This effect is created because reed flowers fused into a tube.
Luchevidnaya form inflorescences (artist Terry)
Pomponovidnye - inflorescences medium-sized, not more than 7 cm in diameter, gustomahrovye, formed by short, tightly spaced reed flowers.
Below is n gloss form inflorescences (artist Terry) -sotsvetiya flattened, ligulate flowers are arranged regularly perpendicularly to the center of the inflorescence.
hemispherical shape of the inflorescence (group Terry) - long reed flowers densely arranged regularly and bent up towards the center of the inflorescence, forming a hemisphere.
Curly - hemispherical inflorescences, rarely spherical, formed long ray flowers arranged densely and irregularly.They are partially bent upwards towards the center of the inflorescence, which creates the effect of a rastrepannosti inflorescences.
Curly form inflorescences (artist Terry) - long reed flowers are arranged densely, regularly and cool
spherical inflorescence (group Terry)
Nemahrovaya shape of the inflorescence (group flat)
semi-double form of the inflorescence (group flat)
semi-double - florets are flat with a small outdoor disc of yellow tubular flowers in the center, reed flowers of different colors are arranged in two to fiverows along the edge of the central disc.
characterized by the presence in the center of the inflorescence long tubular flowers, do not differ in color from the reed.Reed flowers are arranged in three rows of five around the center with tubular flowers.
anemone - inflorescences convex, having all of the basic features of this class.
shape anemone inflorescence (group Convex)
are bent, hanging form the inflorescence (group Terry)
genus Chrysanthemum is very large, there are about 160 different species, many of which are diverse varieties.The variety of chrysanthemum is classified on several grounds.
The timing of flowering chrysanthemums are divided into:
early, bloom in August and September;
average, flowering in October and first half of November;
later, flowering in the second half of November and December.
Depending on the inflorescence and plant height dimensions chrysanthemums are divided into:
large-, inflorescence diameter of 10 to 25 cm, plant height of 80-120 cm;
miniature inflorescence 10-18 cm in diameter, plant height 30-70 cm;
melkotsvetkovye, inflorescence diameter of 4 to 10 cm, plant height 25-120 cm.
There is also a classification of chrysanthemums in shape and inflorescence type, which includes 3 main groups and 10 classes.
Chrysanthemums have annual and perennial, generally there are about 150 species of plants.
Most of these species and varieties of chrysanthemum are very heat-loving plant, demanding growing conditions, which can be created only for them in the greenhouses, and therefore will not be considered in open ground as a perennial crop.
Outdoors as a perennial crop species grown melkotsvetkovoy chrysanthemum, of which the most popular in ornamental horticulture is the kind Korean chrysanthemum, resistant to low temperatures.Melkotsvetkovaya Korean chrysanthemum is a common name among the people - oaks, probably for similar forms of its leaves with oak leaves.Korean chrysanthemum forms a lush bush height from 25 to 110 cm. Stems erect, 25-120 cm tall, with thin fragile branches.Leaves cauline, have a length of up to 7 cm and a width of up to 4 cm, maloizrezanny.The upper side of the leaves is green, smooth, the lower - rather densely covered with short blond hair.The leaves and stems have a kind of on a break with fresh and tart smell of the autumn, sometimes a bit harsh.Chrysanthemums have branched rhizomes located at a depth of 20 cm, giving stolonoobrazuemye numerous shoots and root growth.Inflorescence - basket consisting of a plurality of individual flowers.The flowers are of two types - ligulate and tubular.Short tubular bisexual inflorescences are usually located in the center of a long reed flowers, petals are, gay women - on the edges.At terry chrysanthemums majority of reed flowers, while simple, romashkovidnyh, almost the entire basket is composed of tubular flowers, reed placed in one row only on its edge.The size of inflorescences-baskets may vary -. 2 to 9 cm is often on the same bush blooms almost simultaneously to 500 inflorescences collected in loose complicated guard or whisk.The color of flowers the most diverse: dark orange, dark red, white, crimson, red, pink, yellow, purple.The flowers have a pleasant fresh scent.The average time of flowering chrysanthemum Korean - October.Chrysanthemum is especially dear to us because it is the last autumn flowers, gladdening us with their colors before the onset of winter.Particularly impressive look massive planting of some chrysanthemums, color-matched color and height of the bushes.From them, you can be rich fall compositions into each other tones of autumn leaves: red, orange, red, yellow.It looks nice ridge chrysanthemums under a deciduous tree or shrub, the leaves change color.Good Korean chrysanthemum in joint plantings with various perennials and ornamental shrubs.They can be grown as pot plants and cut flowers.
White - Pearl, Crystal, Snow Maiden, White Sail, Modesty, Daisy. Pink - Cinderella, Kupava, Pink, Moldova, Rosetta, pink daisy. Raspberry purple - Gebe, Magician, Bouquet, daughter Rosetta.
Yellow and orange - Henon, Golden Autumn, Mishal, Autumn sunshine, yellow curb. Red - Aurora, Hayduk, Autumn, Autumn Sunset, Late red, gold tips.
description of some varieties
Autumn sun - nemahrovye bright yellow inflorescences 7-7.5 cm in diameter with a honey aroma.Plant height of 50-60 cm, a strong bush.Blossoms in the second half of August until frost.
Autumn Sunset - nemahrovye red inflorescence, diameter 6.7-7.5 cm Plant height of 40-45 cm Flowering in the second half of August until frost...
fillets yellow - bright yellow inflorescences ro-mashkovidnoy form nemahrovye.Diameter of inflorescences 6-7 cm. Plant height 45-50 cm. The bush is compact, with dark green leaves.Blooms from mid-August.
Late red - inflorescence nemahrovye, velvety red, diameter of inflorescences 6-7 cm Plant height 55-65 cm compact shrub with dark green leaves...It blooms from early September until frost.
Pink daisy - nemahrovye inflorescences, brown and pink, with a diameter of 7 cm Plant height 55-60 cm compact bush...Blooms from mid-August.
Modesty - blossoms are white with a pink tinge, with a diameter of 5-6 cm Plant height of 60-65 cm bush is a strong, well-leafy...Blooms from mid-August.
Golden tips - semi-double blossoms copper-red color with a narrow gold border on the ends of the ray flowers.Diameter of inflorescences 7- 7.5 cm. Plant height 60-65 cm. The bush is strong, well-leafy.Blooms from mid-August.
Daisy - blossoms are white with a cream shade, semi-double.The diameter of 6-7 cm. Plant height 55-65 cm. The bush is strong with light-green leaves.It blooms from late August until frost.
Koreyanochka - inflorescence bronze with golden edges ray flowers with a diameter of 6-7 cm Plant height of 55-65 cm bush is a strong, well-leafy...Blossoms in the second half of August.
Chrysanthemums - excellent cut flowers which are standing in the water longer than any other, except that cloves can stand in the water as long.It's funny, sometimes long standing in the water of chrysanthemum (just like roses) can give the roots and can be planted in a pot.
All varietal breeding chrysanthemum cuttings, for which the necessary uterine plants.Most of their items are selected during the mass flowering.After flowering cut the aboveground part and put in a cool place greenhouses at 4-8 ° C.In January (early stages) - February (late) queen cells are placed in a well-lit area with a temperature of 10-12 ° C.
As the regrowth of basal shoots with apical cuttings are cut 5-8 centimeters long and preventing wilting, planted to take root at 12-15 ° directly into the racks filled with light compost soil with an admixture of peat crumbs.Above is poured sand layer in the 2-3 cm.Cuttings planted at a distance of 3 to 4 centimeters.The first few days, especially in solar time, pritenyayut thin wet paper.Rooting occurs within two to four weeks, after which the cuttings are seated at a distance of 6x6 centimeters.
After the cuttings start growing their pinch, to prevent the formation of early buds and provide branching.Chrysanthemum Grandiflora usually grow only one escape, the others are removed.
the summer chrysanthemums planted in the ground - directly into the ridge or in pots.
The ridge previously tucked in organic and mineral fertilizers and prepared since autumn, are planted in late May - early June, at a distance of 30x30 centimeters.For each plant by the prevailing wind for garter plants put a peg length of 50-60 centimeters.
When the culture in pots they digged in the ridge of open ground, mulch with peat or humus, and also put the pegs.In the summer, during growth, regularly watered and fed a solution of mineral fertilizers (10-15 grams per liter), and the removal is carried out pasynkovanie lower older leaves.
By late summer, all the plants are transferred into the greenhouse.Autumn flowering begins, during which the greenhouse is maintained lower temperature.
melkotsvetnyh Growing chrysanthemums differs only in the nature of formation of clusters, which shoots pinch out a few times, leaving every bush for 40-50 flowers.
Talk about "daisies".Many are interested in long-term chrysanthemum with inflorescences that resemble the flower.They are usually bright yellow or pale yellow with yellow center.Moreover, middle, large, strongly convex, and the boundary petals - shallow and short.
night and in cloudy weather flower fun purses edge petals, sometimes it seems that they were lost.But in the morning as soon as the sun rises, as the reed (boundary) all the petals begin to straighten.
Silnovetvyaschiysya shrub grows quickly (literally in one summer), flowering more than 60 days, from July to September.Foliage at this delicate daisy, short, reminiscent of twigs of arborvitae.
Large bright bushes chrysanthemums can decorate any place in the garden, as long as the sun fell on him, at least 3-4 hours a day.There is also a late-varieties (late August-early October), usually with pale-purple, or dirty-pink, not too attractive flowers - daisies with yellow center and grayish foliage.All these chrysanthemums are unpretentious and hardy, easily propagated by seeds and division of the bush, as well as all of chamomile.
Once Speaking of chrysanthemums, it is necessary to talk about the "real" perennial beauties.There
Japanese chrysanthemum species, characterized by a high durable stalk with large leaves.Crowned with a stem is usually a gorgeous flower.To flower was a large and lush, with a stem is removed all the suckers that grow from the leaf axils (by the way, stepchildren chrysanthemums on cuttings for propagation are not suitable!).The bush is left only 2-3 of the stem, to the plants were more powerful.
Tall varieties require garters.Of course, you can not tie a rope to the beautiful chrysanthemum got some stick.To use a garter bamboo sticks and green shoelaces.You can enclose the growing bush (when it reaches 40-50 cm) wire mesh, rolled into a cylinder, which is fixed in the soil.When the bush grows and fan, the grid is not visible.
Japanese chrysanthemum, usually grown for cutting.But if you want to plant in bloom all fall on the bush, rather than standing in a vase, we should do the opposite.Stems in the bush should be left longer (6-8 pieces), and the bushes themselves should be more magnificent.Woo that special nipping growth point (pintsirovkoy) to cause the growth of side shoots.In the context of the North-West, these chrysanthemums do not hibernate because come from warm countries - Japan and China.But their supposedly but take home for the winter (so, in any case, come in Belarus).They are easy to tolerate transplantation, so flowering plants can be dug from the soil, transplanted into pots and take home.There they will bloom for a long time, almost until the New Year.Then they should be cut off, leaving a stump height of about 15 cm. Keep in a cool place, very sparingly sprinkling water.You can cut them short, to remove all the leaves, put in boxes and leave winter in the cellar.In March-April chrysanthemums begin to revive.There will be new leaves and shoots.It is necessary to leave the strongest 2-3.After a pass by frost, the plants can be planted in open ground.
Chrysanthemum fine basal shoots propagated by cuttings, so appearing from the soil "extra" sprouts have reached 8 to 10 cm, do not need to throw away, and is deposited and were maintained as any cuttings under a glass jar in a separate container or seedling box (a tunnel under the shelter of a film).Then, when the plants take root (they will have a new piece of paper), their doraschivat in the greenhouse, and only then are planted in the ground.Normally, these teenagers and sell in the fall, saying that the plant is excellent winter without shelter.Lie, of course.Large-chrysanthemum manages to keep in the open field, like roses, but with a very good, and most importantly, time to make a shelter, and even then not always.
Fortunately, there are also Korean chrysanthemum, melkotsvetkovye more than the Japanese, but abundant flowering.Most often it is relatively low (60-70 cm) from the bushes a few stems, each with a few flowers blooming.To call a magnificent flowering, cut the tip of each shoot on the 4-6 th leaf (at a height of about 15-20 cm).By the way, these cut the tops of root well.After flowering, the plants are cut down to ground level and hilling soil or peat and sand, even at the height of 30-40 cm. They are well spend the winter.In the spring, in late May, they can razokuchit.Appear weak or "extra" shoots should be removed immediately, while the flowers are larger.