Anomalies of the external ear
According to the World Health Organization, up to 15% of children are born with obvious signs of various developmental anomalies.However, congenital malformations may occur later, so the overall rate of malformations is significantly higher.It was found that children born to mothers older anomalies are more frequent, because the older a woman is, the greater the amount of harmful effects of the environment (physical, chemical, biological) on her body.Anomalies of development of children born to parents with developmental abnormalities, there are 15 times more likely than children born to healthy parents.
Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear occur with a frequency of 1-2 cases per 10 000 live births.
inner ear appears already in the fourth week of embryonic development.The middle ear develops later, and tympanic cavity contains a jelly-like tissue, which subsequently disappears by the time the baby is born.The outer ear appears in the fifth week of fetal development.
Newborn pinna can be increased (supergene, makrotiya) or reduced (gipogeneziya, microtia) that is usually associated with imperforate external auditory canal.There may be excessively increased or decreased only any of its departments (for example, an ear lobe).Anomalies of development can be single and double, and appear in the form of ear appendages, several ears (poliotiya).There splitting lobe, congenital ear fistula atresia (absence) of the external auditory canal.The auricle can be absent, occupy an unusual place.When it is in the form of microtia rudiment may be on the cheek (buccal ear), sometimes only saved lobe of the ear or skin and cartilage roller lobe.
auricle is rolled flat, ingrown, corrugated, angulate (ear macaque), pointed (ear satire).The auricle can be a transverse cleft, and lobe - longitudinal.There are other defects lobe: it may be adherent, big laggard.Frequent combined form of the outer ear malformations.Often combined malformations of the ear and ear canal as its partial or complete absence of underdevelopment.Similar anomalies are described as syndromes.Thus, malformation of the connective tissue, which struck many organs, including the ears is known as Marfan syndrome.There are congenital deformation of both ears in families (Potter's syndrome), bilateral microtia in families (Kessler syndrome), orbito-ear dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome).
When makrotii (increasing the size of the ear), taking into account the diversity of the changes proposed by a number of surgical procedures.If, for example, the pinna is increased uniformly in all directions, t. E. Has an oval shape, excess tissue can be excised.to restore the ear operations in its absence rather complicated, because the skin needs, and you need to create elastic skeleton (support), which is formed around the outer ear.For the formation of the core using pinna rib cartilage, auricular cartilage corpse shell, bone, and synthetic materials.Ear pendants located near the ear is removed along with the cartilage.
include developmental abnormalities of the outer ear canal atresia meet its (often in conjunction with an anomaly of the ear), narrowing, a split and membrane closure.