Stratification of seeds

May 02, 2016 23:00 | Fruit And Vegetables

figurative expression IVMichurin - "rootstock - the foundation of Derain."The important role of stocks expressed in their influence on winter hardiness, growth in situ, durability and productivity of trees (Table.).

Influence of rootstocks on the growth of apple

type rootstock height of trees, m stocking density, pieces / 100 m2 maximum yield per 1 tree, kg Winter hardiness of roots anchor trees permissible level of groundwater, m
Seed 3-4,5 2-4 100-150 Good Good 3-4
vegetatively propagated (clonal) 2-2,5 10-20 40-70 Satisfactory Satisfactory 1-2

as seed stocks for applesuitable seedlings of wild apple forest, Gudulu (Malus Prunifolia), as well as varieties Antonovka ordinary, Grushovka Moscow, Anise, Borovinka.For pear rootstocks can use the seeds of forest pear and cultural and polukulturnyh varieties.Crops such as hawthorn, Japanese quince, mountain ash red, Saskatoon, aronia, also suitable for pear rootstocks and grafted them on diff

erent plants early appearance of fruit, winter hardiness and low growth, although such vaccination unusual short-lived.Seeds after separation from the fruits rinse and dry to 6-9% moisture content.

for cherry rootstocks suitable seeds Vladimir cultural varieties, Lubsko, Shubnikov and Prunus mahaleb (cherry magalebskoy) and tserapadusa (hybrid between a cherry and cherry).Plum seedlings can be grafted onto the cultural and polukulturnyh varieties (Skorospelka red, black, Tula, Greengage collective farm), cherry plum, Prunus tomentosa, sloe and damson.Isolated from bone dry fruit is not desirable, since they thus quickly lose their germination.

seeds listed crops require seedbed preparation, called stratification.It is maintained that the seeds in a wet state at a low temperature (4-5 ° C at first, after a period of stratification -0- 1 ° C) for from 3-4 weeks to several months (depending on the species - Table)..

Terms stratification of seeds of fruit and berry crops

Breed

Duration stratification days

Breed

Duration stratification days

Quince

70-90

Plum, turn and rowan

150-180

Apple Kitaika

90-110

Rosehip, barberry

80-90

Malus sylvestris and cultivars

120-130

Lemongrass

90-120

Prunus tomentosa

100-120

Chokeberry

150-180

Cherry plum

120-150

Hawthorn, viburnum

210-240

sour cherry

150-180

Usually the seeds of pome and stone fruit species recommended before laying in a cold room (eg in a refrigerator) rinse in water for 3-4 days with dailychange the water.

This contributes to the swelling of seeds and the extraction of substances that inhibit germination.Then the seeds are mixed with wet and any loose substrate (sawdust, peat, coarse sand, etc. in a ratio of 1: 2) and placed in polyethylene bags.You can do without substrate and keep damp seeds in bags;periodically checking and stirring.When the first shoots of stratification temperature was lowered to 0 ° C by placing the seeds in a snowy shoulder.temperature reduction period may also be determined by a test germination.

stone fruit seeds quickly lose their germination by drying, so their pre-stratified, and when the soil temperature drops to 6 ° C, sown in the soil (with protection against winter freezing and mice).It is best to also sow the seeds of autumn hawthorn and viburnum, which have a long-term stratification and often germinate only in the second year.