Vaccination - a combination of two parts of different plants, causing them to grow together and continue to grow longer as a single organism.Instills a part of the plant called the graft, and the plant to which the graft, rootstock.With vaccinations and pereprivivki fruit plants can solve many problems:
- to grow a high-quality seedlings with the desired qualities (on the clonal rootstocks, with intermediate slaboroslyh insert a winter-hardy trunk and skeleton);
- get on the same tree several varieties;
- to fill the garden with new varieties with the replacement of low value;
- fix defects in the crown;
- save a tree trunk after the injury;
- grow plants on unsuitable soils.
The Roman poet Virgil, who lived in the 70-20-ies BC, in a poem about agriculture "Georgica" describes the section associated with surgery on the plants.mindalyakashtanypochkikoroy
Currently, vaccination methods are divided into two groups: the inoculation bud (eye) called budding, and grafting cuttings (kopulirovka).Prior
Successful vaccination is important to correctly connect the different tissues of the scion and rootstock, so that they are actively growing layers of the cambium (layer, located directly under the bark of the stem) is the same or have the largest possible contact area sections with closer alignment to other cell vaccination components.
and other conditions necessary for the successful fusion of the scion and rootstock (Table.).
terms of successful vaccination fruit plants
means of implementation, methods, parameters
Pome breed: from 15 July until 20 August Drupaceous breed: the beginning of May (sprouting bud), as well as from 20 June
Proper harvesting cuttings
Cut annual shoots on the south side of the treefrom the middle or upper part of the crown.Below the cutoff leave 8-10 cm to escape, with the upper part of the kidney to remove nevyzrevshie.Remove leaf blades, leaving the petioles 5-7 mm long *.Keep the cuttings moist for 2-3 days in the refrigerator - 15 days
Clean tools and the junction vaccinations
grafting knives sharpened to a razor state.Wipe with a clean cloth sections place before vaccination and regular knife blade.Vaccinations do in dry cloudy weather
accuracy and density of the overlapping layers of cambium
Cut grafting components so that the area and shape of the flap cut and the cut on the rootstock was the same.Immediately after inoculation shield tightly tie film
larger percentage of established vaccines
Okulirovat on cloudy and cool days;better than the two eyes;first make cuts on the stock, and then vaccinated.In time to remove the harness
Kopulirovka (grafting cuttings)
optimal timing of surgery
Pome species: from early April until mid-June
Stone fruit species: early Aprilat rest
Proper harvesting cuttings
Cut annual shoots in early winter (November-December) and store until the grafting moist (wrap in wet cloth and film) at a temperature of 0-3 °With
density touch the surface of the scion cuts and stock
place vaccinations densely tie film
Prevention vaccination against drying
Lubricate ends of graft components and the entire stalk garden pitch.Close vaccinated paper shade, it is necessary to remove it as soon as the shoots begin to grow from buds
* Experienced okulirovschiki leave petioles on the panel.This simplifies the piping vaccinations.
For budding need to cut the long annual shoots, preferably elevated growing, leaving the mother tree, the lower part with short internodes.Annual growth rates in the uterine trees, cut for grafting should be well matured, and the buds are sufficiently formed.In pome crops annual increments, regardless of their length have a kidney growth.In stone fruit are present only on a gain of no less than 40-50 cm on a short annual increment predominate flower buds which are not suitable for budding, because they are not formed from the sprouts.
have cut (preferably in the morning) shoots should immediately remove nevyzrevshie top and leaf blades (with stipules), leaving the lower part of the petiole 0.5-1 cm long.
petiole This can serve as a body diagnosis survival eye as threeweeks after inoculation with a positive result, the stalk must be easily separated from the panel, and with a negative - remain firmly attached to it.
for vaccination is better to take his eyes from the middle part of the cutting with more advanced kidney.For best suited budding seedlings or shoots of less than 10 mm thick.Budding "vpriklad" can be done in the absence of active sap flow (easy separation of the cortex) on the rootstock, besides there is no swimming holes (as opposed to vaccinations in a T-shaped cross-section).
seed stocks okuliruyut 5-6 cm above the root collar, on the clonal rootstocks - at a height of 20-35 cm, so that when planting in garden barrel rootstock deepen and get additional roots.
«vpriklad" budding technique method includes the following basic techniques.
1. On the rootstock (grafted branch) make a cross-section of the cortex in the site of implantation at an angle of 30 ° to a depth of 4-5 mm, thus forming a wedge-shaped tab.Then the blade is removed, place it in the 2.5-3 cm above the cross-section and forwards to cut a strip of bark with a minimum capture of wood.(The best survival rate of vaccination would be the case if the cut strip of bark from the kidney.)
annual shoots, prepared for budding
You can also cut the first strip of bark, and then leave the tab cross section (as shown in the figure).
2. With cutting grafting varieties cut flap 2.5-3 cm in length with well developed kidney and a thin layer of wood.When stem vase life guard holding the tip to her.
First, stepping up from the kidney to 1 cm transverse incision cortex of 6-8 mm in length.Then put the knife at an angle of 30 ° to the cutting surface at a distance of 1.5-2 cm below the selected kidney and motion to his shield cut.For better accretion of the scion with the stock you need to have the lower part of the shield of 1-1.5 cm and slightly longer than the upper part.Fabric cut rootstock and grafting shield must be clean.
3. When the blade reaches the upper cross-section, privivalschik right thumb cut plate presses the knife away from the cutting and inserts into the prepared cut on the rootstock in a wedge-shaped tab.Larger eyes should be taught to the thick and small - to the thin stock.Shield is applied so that its longitudinal axis coincides with the longitudinal axis of the stock.Worse will settle down too thick and wide, as well as too narrow shields.
If the panel is longer than the cut on the rootstock, the excess part of the cut.If the stock was too thick, and cut off a strip of fabric on it wide, the plate should be put to one side so as to coincide cambial tissue grafting components.In the case of a narrow flap of his shift to either side of the cut on the rootstock with the same purpose.
4. For tight contact grafted parts and protection from drying graft flap tightly tied with a ribbon of film width of 10-12 mm and 30-40 cm long. The tape starts to stack the bottom vaccinations in a spiral so that the coils overlap.At the top of the tape knotted loop grafting.When budding film instead of tying vaccination locations can be applied by attaching a medical adhesive that will improve productivity.
Under normal conditions, 3-4 weeks after the vaccination panel merges with the stock and therefore the film piping must be removed (with the delay of the operation may lead to undesirable constrictions shoots).
In the early spring of the grafted kidney, to ensure its rapid growth, it is necessary to cut the top of the rootstock (or branches).
Home budding pome and stone rocks - the third decade of July - mid-August.In addition to these terms of budding stone fruit crops better able to spring when budding awakening eyes (early - mid-May).There can be applied the way budding proposed DMPopov.It lies in the fact that the stock at the beginning of sap flow cut off for a short spike oblique cut.Then, the bottom of the crust along the incision and inserted into the cortex of the eye, cut with a thicker layer of wood than usual.Location vaccination tied with tape and film coated with a garden pitch.A short spike in this case serves to okulyanta garters.
young trees (up to 5 years) can be pereprivivat budding (1-2-year-old branch) and the annual cuttings method "improved kopulirovki" for "bark", "in the side desperately."On older trees it is advisable to first make a pruning of the skeletal branches and the following year annual shoots pereprivit formed by budding or improved kopulirovki.
unusual advice.Better pereprivivat tree at a time, but you can go out to one half of the tree grafting done in one year, and the other half - for the next year.
It is necessary to consider such a feature: if pereprivivaetsya cultural (varietal) tree, it is better to grade year (deadline for fruit ripening) also inculcate variety of summer ripening.
example, varieties or Papirovka Summer striped selected as "skeletoobrazovateley" grafted varieties ripening summer - Melba, Mantet, Lungwort, Kitaika gold, Arkadik and others.In the same way come from trees-skeletoobrazovatelyami autumn and winter varieties of ripening fruit.
Annual cuttings for grafting a better harvest in late autumn and early winter, before the onset of severe frosts and store in conditions excluding drying of cuttings and sprouting buds on them (wrap in a damp cloth and tape, placed in the refrigerator or a snowy shoulder).
In the absence of strong annual increments for grafting can be used 2-year-old twigs.
Formation of tree crown pereprivitogo next year
basic requirement of successful kopulirovki - to be vaccinated during an active sap flow varietal rootstock cuttings that are in a dormant state.
vaccination method "improved kopulirovka". Typically, the thickness of the graft (scion) and rootstock (the branch on which are grafted) with this method should be the same, about 1 cm. Pa rootstock and grafting the handle make oblique slices in length 3-4 times greater than the thickness of the stock.When connecting sections rootstock and scion of cambial layers must be matched over the entire length of sections.Graftable cutting should be with 2-3 buds.On a stock after bevel, departing from approximately 1/3 of the upper end, longitudinal incision on the width of the blade of the knife inoculum (about 1 cm), and the scion - a section from the lower 1/3.When combined with the stock of the cutting should be done so that "tongues", formed through a longitudinal section, went for each other.If the scion and rootstock uniform thickness, it is necessary to coincide cambial layers at least on one side.Immediately after combining the cutting with the stock seat vaccination tightly tied with a ribbon of the film.At the same time see to it that cuts the plane had not been shifted and had no gaps between the turns of the film.Coated with a garden pitch upper section of the graft cuttings and better and the whole of the cutting surface to protect from drying out.
vaccination method "improved kopulirovka»
vaccination method "in the side desperately» .This method is best used in the case when the stock thicker graft cuttings in the 1.5-3 times.First, the stock is cut to 10-20 cm above the intended place of vaccination.Then, it makes an oblique longitudinal 2-2.5 cm long incision angle 20-25 ° to its axis to a depth of 1 / 3-1 / 2 of its (top-down movement of the knife).On the handle grafting varieties make 2 oblique connecting longitudinal cut on the wedge.This wedge cut length should match the depth of cut on the rootstock, and the lower the kidney (3-5 available on the handle) to be on the outside after vaccination.The prepared graft is inserted into the incision and, since the thickness of the rootstock and scion is different, it is desirable to at least one side of a coincidence bark grafting components.Location vaccination tied with a ribbon of the film, several times through the resulting perehlestyvaya "fork" to completely isolate the wound surface.The upper section of the grafted cutting is coated with pitch.Rootstock 10-15 days after vaccination cut above the cut point, obscuring the top cut garden pitch.It is also important not to forget to take off after 3-4 weeks of vaccination with banding film, or may be undesirable constriction shoots.
vaccination method "in the side desperately»
unusual advice. grafting "in the side desperately," you can correct the situation, when even young trees (not older than 4-5 years) have a high shtamb -. 70 cm in this case, arrived in shtamb cuttings, it is necessary in the subsequent grafting of the top of the kidneys to form skeletal branches.
vaccination method "for bark» .The method is used from the beginning to the end of the spring sap flow for pereprivivki number mostly thick branches.It is best to work out the bark grafting on apple, pear, plum, cherry plum.Instills a branch cut at right angles to the axis behold, end trimmed, its thickness should not exceed 5 cm. On several branch grafted cuttings.Sharing with annual shoots take three or four well-developed buds.At the lower end of the cutting, under at night, make an oblique cut.cut length must be greater than the cutting thickness of 6-7, but rather the middle cut from the opposite side of the handle must be kidney.Then, at the end of the handle, the back side of the cut, the bark of a little cut, so that it is not wrapped when it is inserted into the rootstock.Just slightly cut bark from lateral sides an oblique cut along the entire length.
On bark rootstock cuttings after preparation do longitudinal incision is made up of wood.Place for grafting onto rootstock Gorce desirable to choose not round, but flat.Then the folded strip of bark on the rootstock and graft is inserted.When you insert the cutting of bark it is necessary that the cutting is performed above the cut branches cut to 1 cm;then fusion would be "with the influx", which increases the strength of the vaccine.With the same purpose, thick stalks (more than 7-8 mm in diameter) can be nailed stud (cobbler 10-15 mm in length).Vaccination is tied with a ribbon of the film, end stock and grafted stem coated with garden pitch.
unusual advice.IN AND.Susov recommends that vaccination for "bark" to insert the cuttings 2-3 cm, which allows them to branch on the circle quickly grow together with each other and prevents damage when vaccination will grow together with each other (in 2-3 years), they gradually through each oneyear, greatly shortened so that the continuation of pereprivitoy branches (4-6 years) had a strong top grafting.
vaccination method "for bark»
When vaccination fruit crops can apply this technique: wet sections of the scion and rootstock honey solution (1 teaspoon per 100 g of water).Those who did so, achieved 100% survival rate of vaccination.