Reproduction of roses
Roses are propagated by seed and vegetatively.Sowing the seeds are used for breeding purposes in the breeding of new varieties and for rootstocks in nurseries.Vegetative reproduction is used in cases when you want to retain varietal characteristics, ie, when growing seedlings.
Depending on the variety, the local conditions and goals various methods of vegetative propagation.
division bushes, breeding offspring are most commonly used for breeding park roses.Divide whole bushes and the separation of their parts, the offspring can be conducted in the fall, not later than October, newly planted plants to take root before the frost, or in early spring - before bud burst.
Propagation by layering is typical for polyanthas and climbing roses.Vertical slips easily hilling foundation shrubs loose, nutritious, moist soil.Horizontal - layout of annual shoots around the bush and hilling as well as the awakening of the kidneys and the regrowth of young shoots vertical.This work is carried out in early spring.By the
Green cuttings are widely used at the present time under glass or under the film.Particularly good results are obtained with the use of artificial fog.In this way, almost all groups cuttings root easily roses.Cuttings harvested at the stage of green bud with less developed lateral shoots.The segments with three eyes planted, recessed by 0.5 cm at a distance of 3-5 cm from each other, in the greenhouse soil, greenhouse or razvodochnogo box.On the layer breeding ground poured 1.5-2 cm of coarse sand-washed to avoid rotting of the stalk.If within a month the temperature 20-25 ° cuttings take root, and then start to grow.Rooted cuttings were grown on site or planted in pots, and then next spring is transferred to a permanent place.
rooting rose cuttings can be in the indoor environment - in a box or bowl under the glass or film cover.Cuttings rooting to be sure several times per day sprayed, especially on hot days, and pritenyayut from direct sunlight.
non-grafted plants are good for the room and hothouse culture, as well as growing in open ground, but only in areas with a mild climate and warm winters.
Grafting - the main method of mass breeding roses.A strong and stable rootstock root system provides a well-developed for the season of planting material.
to areas of the Central Black Earth band best rootstock rose yuanina - widespread silnorosly rose.The nurseries for growing roses organize special shestisemi-dipole rotation that includes seeding department ,null, two fields - for growing roses, and three or four fields - for row crops and herbs.Furthermore ;, the farm must be the liquor stocks for harvesting seeds and liquor rose for harvesting cuttings.Growing stocks of sowing is carried out in the department.
Rose hips are harvested in the beginning stages of their coloring and ground with the help of various crushers.Seeds are screened from the pulp through a screen and stratify in basements or wells for two months for the autumn sowing or 7-8 months for the spring.Sometimes the seeds are only sown in the autumn of next year, after a long stratification.Sowing is carried out manually in the cut grooves or using drills.The depth of seeding on heavy soils 1-2, in the lungs - 2-3 centimeters.100 kilos of fruit yield 15-20 kilograms of seeds, from which you can get 150-200 thousand rootstocks.
In our one year zone grow fit for budding seedlings, which can be partly zaokulirovat in place.Excavated and graded by thickness rootstocks root collar (the first category - 5-7 mm, and the second - 3-5 mm) are planted in the fall of the first field of the nursery, not later than October, or as early as possible in spring.Rosehip early start to grow, so a good survival rate requires a very early planting.On one hectare at a distance between rows 80 and in a series of about 20 cm is placed 60 thousand seedlings.The landing is carried out on the cord or on the trail marker under the shovel or number.In large nurseries use tree-planting machine.
wildings planted so that the root collar remained above the soil surface.After planting, watering and spud.Preferred as watering before budding, which is usually carried out in August and early September, when the bark is well behind at the wildings.Cuttings harvested from matured shoots wither, provided with labels with the name of the variety and retain the wet moss or sawdust in a cool place.The most valuable eyes, well acclimatized and subsequently giving the best plants, located in the middle part of the cuttings.
Cut off eyes with a shield length of 2-2.5 cm with a minimum of wood or better without it and inserted into the T-shaped incision on the neck of the root and grated razokuchennogo wildings.Immediately after inoculation tightly tied.When you trim film hilling is not necessary when using Mochalov wildings spud again, in order to avoid drying buds.Two weeks later, check the survival rate of eyes, cutting the tying material.Plants with eyes got along again okuliruyut.In the event of regular frosts okulyanty - the winter spud the ground, or better filings.
Early spring wildings open and cut off "by eye", leaving a stump above the grafted bud in the 0.5-1 cm (sometimes gives good results truncation wildings in the fall, just before the shelter for the winter).Eyes start to grow quickly.During the summer, regularly remove the emerging pressed below eye wild shoots.Young shoots for the formation of a cultural rose bush pinch out over the second-third sheet.Hybrid tea roses, floribunda varieties groups, polyanthas quickly bloom in the nursery and then tsvetut.vse summer.By the fall formed a strong bushes, ready for planting a permanent place.
.For stam roses polushtambovyh or use vigorous rose.Wildings grow two to three years, vygonyaya- strong shoots.Budding spend a few eyes, for trunks at a height of 1-1.5, for polushtambov - 0.5 to 0.75 meters.Good results are obtained in spring budding root neck and trunks are well-rooted wildings eyes with winter cuttings.Cutting "by eye" is carried out in three weeks, grafted plants are growing rapidly and at the same summer bloom.