The quality of planting material

May 07, 2016 23:00 | Fruit And Vegetables

important question - is a product of quality planting material.For each type seedlings are industry standards (Table.) In which are defined: the age of the plant (usually 1-2 summer), the height, the number of branches and their diameter, length, number of roots.What should pay attention primarily in the selection of seedlings?Of course, the root system and the diameter of the trunk or escape (from strawberry - horn).

There is a general rule: the more powerful the roots (the number, length, branching and fibrous) and the less elevated part, the greater the guarantee of survival and successful growth of plants.

Usually when digging the plant out of the soil at the seedling is, at best, a third of the root system, which was formed during growth.

requirements for commercial quality of planting material of fruit crops (for the middle zone)

Culture

Age, years

commercial grade

overground part (no less), see

root system

height trunk

diameter trunk

lengthmain branches

number of major roots

length, see

apples and pears (in

2

1

60-80

1,8

30-50

5

30

seed stocks)

2

60-80

1,6

20-40

3

25

1

1

130 *

1,2

-

5

25

2

110*

1,0

-

3

20

Apple (on clonal rootstocks)

2

1

50-60

1,6

20

5

25

2

50-60

1,3

20

3

25

1

1

110 *

1,0

-

5

25

2

90 *

0,8

-

3

20

cherries and plums

2

1

50-60

1,7

50

5

30

2

50-60

1,5

40

3

25

1

1

150 *

1,2

-

5

25

2

120 *

1,0

-

3

20

* The height of the same age.The above-ground portion may be cut to a specified height.

Another important parameter seedlings - it is their age.Experience shows that the more young plant is transplanted, the better it survives and grows faster.

ideal case - sowing or planting of rootstock for permanent growth, followed by grafting the variety, ie,without change varietal seedlings.

unusual advice. In this respect, a good way to planting woody cuttings of currants on a permanent place.For this purpose it is necessary to prepare the soil for planting, making organic and mineral fertilizers, abundantly shed water landing place to hide their film (light or dark), to make a film in 10 cm slot into which pan and put 2 cutting crosswise.This must be done after September 15 (for red currant - a little early, because its harder to root cuttings).Note that cuttings from 1-year-old shoots should be cut only from healthy bushes, not affected bud mite.Cuttings should be thick enough (no thinner than a pencil) and a length of 15-20 cm. When landing on the surface of the soil should stay 1-2 buds (not more).The following year these cuttings will develop 1-year-old plant, which is 1-2 years (depending on grade) will have the first harvest.

unusual advice.To eliminate the bulging hardwood cuttings currants (which is observed in the autumn planting) can be used two ways:

a) planting the cuttings do not bend, and parallel to the soil surface at the base of previously prepared ridges.In this case as well, as usual, the upper 2/1 kidney need not bury into the soil;

b) lignified escape (not cutting it for cuttings) to bend the ring, connecting the ends, and planted in the soil so that the soil surface remained 3-4 buds.

After landing (immediately fall or next spring) is recommended 1-year-old seedling standard (for example, apple trees with a minimum height of 1.2 m) cut, leaving only 70 cm escape.It restores the correlation between lost when digging the root system and the above-ground part of the plant.In 1-2-year-old seedlings of berry bushes for this purpose it is necessary to shorten all shoots, leaving each of them 3-4 buds.But the offspring of raspberries should be cut to a height of 10-20 cm, the most desired for the perfect fit.In all these cases, there is hope for a good growth of shoots in plants planted in the next year.

have seedlings with closed root system (grown in containers) all the roots are preserved for the transplant.This is a great advantage of this planting material.

often necessary to temporarily (within 7-10 days) to maintain the acquired plants in a viable state prior to planting.Here the most important thing - to prevent drying of the roots.To do this, dip the roots in the soil and clay mash (the density of sour cream), then impose any wet material (soil, peat, sawdust, rags, newspapers, etc.) and wrap them in plastic wrap.Keep seedlings preferably in a cool place.If the roots of the seedlings slightly dried up, before planting a gardener must prune them in the 2-3 cm and put the seedling (root and part of the trunk) in water for 2-3 days.

It may be that the seedlings purchased later established for the area of ​​planting dates and risky to plant a permanent place.In this case, better prikopat seedlings for the winter in a sheltered place in trenches 50-60 cm deep and 50 cm wide.

Prikopka seedlings for the winter

The trench seedlings should be placed with a slope tops to the south side to avoid sunburn.After the trench is backfilled with seedlings at 1/4 of its depth of loose moist soil, plants should be watered and finally fall asleep soil after minor frosts up to a height of 20-25 cm above the root neck (to avoid freezing of seedlings).Around prikopki with seedlings need to do drainage grooves and decomposed poisoned bait against mice and water rats.

spring fruit seedlings should be removed as early as possible of prikopki, not allowing podoprevaniya bark on trunks and planted to a permanent place.