From the history of fungi
Since ancient times mushrooms have played an important role in human nutrition.It is known that primitive hunters and gatherers already able to recognize not only their nutritional value, but also knew how to distinguish edible mushrooms from poisonous and inedible.
As science evolved, the ancient scientists and doctors are increasingly began to pay attention to the mushrooms.In this period came the first written mention of mushrooms, but as a rule, these documents indicate only types without detailed descriptions.
Greek physician and founder of the science of medicine, Hippocrates, not only wrote in his works about mushrooms, but also confirms their importance for medicine.However, the classification and taxonomy of known species did not exist, because at that time people still know very little about the origin, structure and life of mushrooms.
In the first illustrated book describing herbs, mushrooms are depicted next to the writhing snakes.
first place in the world of fungi plants identified The
After Theophrastus mention of mushrooms began to appear in other authors such as Dioscorides, Pliny the Elder, who lived in the I century.BC.e.These scientists have tried to make the first description of the most known them large mushrooms and outlined some of their properties.
Dioscorides except for the description of edible and poisonous mushrooms have medicinal properties and even larch Polypore.
Toxic mushrooms also explained the place of germination.For example, Pliny the Elder claimed that mushrooms that grow near the snake nests, rusty iron and other waste, very toxic.This opinion is held up to the Middle Ages.
This doctrine of the mushrooms, as well as the fear that people experienced before the mushroom, have led to the fact that mushrooms have long been considered something special and mysterious, and therefore associated with the dark forces.
first rock mushroom image was found by archaeologists in Egyptian king's tomb, it relates to 1450 BC.e.
Mushrooms thought of as magical and diabolical creation and witches weapon.This is evidenced by the popular names of many species of fungi: Witch egg satanic mushroom, etc., or an expression such as "fairy ring"...
At the end of the Middle Ages, when they started to develop the natural sciences, there are new details about mushrooms.
By that time it tried to somehow qualify the known types of fungi.For example, Karl Clouzot (1525-1609 gg.) Divided the mushrooms in the poisonous and edible species and similar species distributed by the families.
same basic discoveries concerning the fungi were made after in 1590 the Dutchman Zacharias Janssen invented the microscope.
This invention enabled the scientists not only to describe the mushrooms by their outward appearances, but also to consider in detail the internal structure of fungi.
Pastor Jacob Christian Schaeffer (1718-1790 gg.) In its composition, consisting of 4 volumes, described about 400 different species of fungi, with 80 of these mushrooms have been named for the first time.
The books Schaeffer all the illustrations were painted by hand, and the publication of these volumes was made possible by financial support from the Russian royal house.
Italian scientist P. Micheli (1679-1737 gg.) Was the first to collect and sow spores of various fungal species on natural soil or foundation, thus proving that the fungi reproduce by means of spores.Similarly, P. Micheli managed to grow fungi on pieces of pear and melon.Similar experiments he conducted with plate and mushrooms, vyseivaya their disputes on the fallen leaves.
Despite this, P. Micheli was not able to estimate the value of the mycelium (mycelium), and still quite a long time was considered the views of the mycelium, the fungus.And only a few decades later it was finally disproved the assertion that the mushrooms grow in the mud, in the moisture and rot.
Somewhat later, the botanist and physician from the Netherlands Hendrik Christian Persoot (1755-1837 gg.) Published his works in which the mushrooms were systematized and categorized.
In the future, scientists around the world are not only open, but also describe in detail all the new types of mushrooms.
In 1834, the French explorer Henri Dyutroshe (1776-1847 gg.) Was able to prove that the fungus is made up of branching filaments that grow in the soil, with it they form a mycelium.Thus, it is proved that the fruiting bodies called mushrooms among the people - this is nothing, as the body for the formation of spores.
Swedish botanist Elias Magnus Fries (1794-1878 gg.) Developed the systematization plate of mushrooms, which was based on the classification of the color of fungal spores.And the main provisions of the labor is not lost its relevance today.
great contribution to the scientific knowledge about mushrooms introduced Adalbert Ricken (1850 1921.).That he was able to describe the 3500 species of fungi, t. E. All the mushrooms that were known at that time.
In his first book, which was entitled "Plate mushrooms," he was able to describe about 1,500 species of fungi.All of these mushrooms he divided into orders and families, building on the classification, developed by EM Fries.In his second book, which was published in 1918 and entitled "A Guide for lovers of mushrooms", it has been described about 2000 species of fungi.
Subsequently, all the questions that have been associated with kinship and taxonomy of fungi, receded into the background.Once, in 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered antibacterial mold fungus Penicillium notatum, began to conduct active investigations of substances contained in mushrooms, in terms of their use in medicine.
Scientists have found that in addition to antibiotics in fungi have chemical compounds, which in the future can be used to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels.
great importance for science is the discovery of the fungus capable of absorbing foreign substances from crude oil, due to which the quality of raw materials is significantly improved.So Kaj & lt;Mushrooms contain proteins, they can be cleaned and used as animal feed.
Recently, scientists all over the world once again turned their attention to issues related to species of fungi, their relationship, lifestyle and distribution.
modern Scientists already know about 100 thousand. Various species of mushrooms, most of which grows in North America and Europe.In Russia there are over 150 species of mushrooms, which are suitable for human consumption.