Mushrooms in nature
In countries with highly developed industry becoming more and more acute problem of increasing waste, and the decision on their disposal or recycling has not been found.Since then, both in our everyday life includes items made of synthetic substances, the mountain of waste every day are becoming higher.But no one knows how to cope with the flow of the exhaust.
process of photosynthesis
However, this problem only characterizes human society.A solution to the problem in the Nature found long ago, millions of years ago.And, most surprisingly, this method effectively is still in effect.Everything that is done, decomposes and returns to its original state.Thus there is a cycle between producers, consumers and destroyers.Manufacturers produce carbon dioxide in air and water, the organic substance.To do this they need sunlight as an energy source and as a catalyst for chlorophyll.These producers are the green plants, and the process that they carry out, is called photosynthesis.Through this process, plants
to the consumer are allowed in this chain.Some of them feed on plants, and others - meat.Prey predators always become herbivores.
By destroyers are not only bacteria, but also fungi.They rid the world of the dead layer remains.And to continue to play a role, the mushrooms must be submitted on the planet over the place.
However, not all mushrooms replenish their energy reserves due to the fact that destroy dead bodies, there are also those that are parasitic on living organisms.It mushrooms-parasites.Some of them form a community living with the higher plants.
Saprophytes - are organisms that feed on the remains of other plants and animals.This group includes many large mushrooms (Fig.).They receive nutrients from the compost, straw, fallen leaves in the woods, trunks, branches and stumps, manure, feathers, horns, and charcoal.
But most saprophytes still prefer certain substrates.For example, honey agaric summer prefers to remains of deciduous trees, and lozhnoopёnok gray plate - conifers.Coprinus comatus grows well in soils that are rich in nitrogen.
Equally important are microscopic and saprophytes, which settle on the food and make it unfit for consumption.Mould on jam, juice or fermented rotten apple - all the result of their activities.
Mushrooms parasites Parasites
they receive the necessary material at the expense of living organisms, the hosts.As a result of its activities, or they are harmful or completely destroy the host.Among the major fungal parasites are rare.It is known, for example, that the honey agaric autumn settles in living trees.Sometimes it happens that the parasitic fungi are parasitic on other fungi.For example, the flywheel parasite settles in the fruit body of poisonous raincoats (fig.), A parasitic volvariella - on Govorushko.
Microscopic fungi among parasites also play an important role, for example, smut and rust fungi each year require a share of the harvest.The damage caused by them is estimated at billions of dollars.In the tropics, these fungi become a cause of death of 50% of the crop.
In nature, there are mushrooms that are in symbiosis with green plants.They create mycorrhiza.Mushrooms threads entwine its smallest roots of plants and pull them out of the necessary material.However, these actions do not harm the roots of plants, and thanks to the fungi they can easily get out of the soil necessary minerals.For example, pine seedlings can grow tall only if their roots entwine certain types of fungi.
orchid seeds germinate only if they stay in symbiosis with special mushrooms.
is why fungi symbionts (Fig.) Can be found only near certain types of plants.
and edible and poisonous mushrooms are symbiotic, t. E., They can not exist without a host plant.Mushrooms, which specialize in certain types of trees, may disappear if these trees are felled or die from other causes.
Lichens as a symbiosis of fungi and algae
Total distinguish more than 20 thousand. Lichens.Lichens form a functionally homogeneous body.Studies have shown that lichen is a symbiosis of fungi and algae.
ants and fungi
Animals can also form a symbiosis with fungi.For example, there are ants mushroom growers.They devour the threads of fungi, nutrient-rich, and break under the ground the whole gardens of fungi.
on their plantations ants bring pieces of leaves, they bite, thus creating a breeding ground for fungi.