The new generation of fungi
Fungi reproduce asexually, vegetatively and sexually ways.
1. Vegetative reproduction is carried out in parts of the mycelium.These parts are separated from the total weight, and then grow and develop themselves.Rain fungi reproduce by budding.On the mycelium formed outgrowths of cells, which then grow in size, and after otshnurovyvayutsya.
Lower fungi are arranged in the simplest and most live in the water.The spores of these fungi have flagella and swim well.
2. Asexual reproduction - is the reproduction of spores.Spores can be covered with single or common envelope flagella or do without them.
Placement dispute - sporangium.GIFA, on which it is located is called Sporangiophores.The spores with flagella are Zoosporangia.Without flagella spores called conidia and openly sitting on gife-kondienostse.
Since spores reproduction depends on the will of the case, the mushrooms, to ensure reproduction of its kind, producing a huge amount of controversy.For example, meadow mushrooms, cap diameter is 8 cm
Basically mushroom spores spread through the air.Light wind can spread them on a very long distance.Wind speed and direction are random values, the same as rainfall and humidity.
When spores fall to the ground, they form a mycelium, but need a suitable soil and a favorable external environment (temperature and humidity) for its development.In order to display the fruit body, in one place should germinate spores two different sexes.Only in this case, the fruit body will develop.Its development in large mushrooms can go two ways: the first way leads to the emergence of marsupials mushrooms, the second - basidiomycetes.
3. Reproduction disputes gives rise to the primary mycelium.Secondary mycelium is formed by the merger of two primary mycelia.This is sexual reproduction.
sexual process - is a fusion of male and female gametes, resulting in a zygote.In the lower movable gametes fungi may be the same or different in size.If gametes are dissimilar in structure and yet, they are formed in the male and female genitals.
Fixed egg can be fertilized by sperm motility or outgrowth antheridia that pours its contents into oogonia.Introduced secondary mycelium grows and is nourished and in favorable conditions produces fruiting bodies.
accumulate and mature spores in fruit bodies.
known that any organism receives genetic program of further development.If you have a user-friendly environment that the body realizes it.The entire genetic program is contained in the nuclei of cells.There mycelium with a full program or its half.In the first case, the development goes normally, and the second to form a new diploid organism, must be a fusion of haploid half on the other.
After the merger in fungi can be two ways of development.
The first method is used in the development if the diploid stage is short-lived, ie. E. After the sexual core of the process merge and divide twice (reduction division).This leads to the fact that the structure formed haploid.Each half of the mushroom supplies part of the genetic program.
second way is characteristic of fungi, which, after the merger hibernate.In this case, the zygote is covered by a shell and waiting for spring.Then it grows, t. E. There is reduction division and begin to develop haploid spores.
Mushrooms - amazing organisms that have adapted to the environment.
How is the basidiomycetes
By askometsetam (marsupials fungi) are lines, morels and truffles (Fig.).
Their mycelium spreads in the soil and is composed of cells with a nucleus.Sexual hyphae cells are merged only in the growing fruit body.This forms a secondary mycelia, composed of cells with two nuclei.When the nuclei fuse, they form the bags, which contain 8 ascospores.
By basidiomycetes include many large species of fungi.A feature of these fungi is that basidiomycetes heterosexual hyphae fuse before formed fruiting body.Therefore mycelium spread in the soil, is secondary.Under favorable conditions, begin to form fruiting bodies, which are completely made up of cells with two nuclei.
cells where both cores merge, appear at the ends of the hyphae are called basidia.These spores are carried by wind as well.So, Ascomycetes and bazi-diomitsetov thus completing the life cycle.