Calculation of doses of fertilizers

May 12, 2016 23:00 | Fruit And Vegetables

high and stable yields of fruit and berry crops can provide the soil with a sufficient level of fertility.Doses of fertilizers for fruit and berry crops is determined depending on the content of soil available phosphorus (P2O5) and exchangeable potassium (K2O), and taking into account the peculiarities of plants.

In terms of availability of soil phosphorus and potassium are divided into 6 groups.Using the correction factors for the average doses of fertilizer (for Group III), it is easy to determine from the tables 16 and 17 a dose of fertilizer with any degree of soil security.For this purpose, the recommended dose of each element of the average power multiplied by the correction coefficients.

Recall that the active ingredient (d. In.) Fertilizer called that part of it which is used by the plant.It is expressed as a percentage and is listed on the packaging.To recalculate the dose found in the tables of fertilizer in the village. In.available for a particular type of fertilizer to be multiplied by 100

and divided by the product of the percentage of active ingredient in the fertilizer.For example, it is necessary to add 6 g of 1 m2 of phosphorus.In a simple superphosphate it contains 20%.Therefore, the dose of it will be:

6 x 100/20 = 30 g

In the case of complex shapes of dose of fertilizers is calculated from the element, which is smaller than the other, you need to make the soil.The missing amount of other nutrients replenish the additional introduction of simple forms of fat.

grouping soils according to the degree of security phosphorus and potassium for fruit and berry crops (content mg ​​per 100 g of soil in a layer of 0-20 cm)

Culture

degree of security

very low

low

average

increased

high

very high

P2O5

K2O

P2O5

K2O

P2O5

K2O

P2O5

K2O

P2O5

K2O

P2O5

K2O

Pome

5

to 6

6-10

7-12

11-15

13-18

16-20

19-24

21-25

25-30

& gt; 25

& gt; 30

Drupaceous

5

6

6-10

7-12

11-15

13-18

16-20

19-24

21-25

25-30

& gt; 25

& gt; 30

Aronia

10

to 10

10-15

10-15

15-20

15-20

20-25

20-25

25-30

25-30

& gt; 30

& gt; 35

Seabuckthorn

15

to 10

15-20

10-15

20-25

15-20

25-30

20-25

30-35

25-30

& gt; 35

& gt; 30

Blackcurrant

to 15

to 10

15-20

10-15

20-25

15-20

25-30

20-25

30-35

25-30

& gt; 35

& gt; 30

Currant

red gooseberries

to 10

15

10-15

15-20

15-20

20-25

20-25

25-30

25-30

30-35

& gt; 30

& gt; 35

Raspberry

15

20

15-20

20-25

20-25

25-30

25-30

30-35

30-35

35-40

& gt;35

& gt; 40

Strawberry

5

10

5-10

10-15

10-15

15-20

15-20

20-25

20-25

25-30

& gt; 25

& gt; 30

correction factors to the doses of fertilizers

1,5

1,25

1,0

0,75

0,5

0,25

doses of fertilizers fruit crops (for moderate security soil mobile phosphorus and exchange potassium)

period of application and the planned harvest

organic (manure, compost), kg / m2

Mineral, c d. in. / m2

nitrogen * N

phosphorus P2O5

potassium K2O

Apple, pear

before fruiting

-

6

-

-

yield up to 30 kg per tree

1,5

9

6

9

Vintage 31 -60 kg per tree

2,0

12

9

15

Vintage 61 -120 kg per tree

2,5

15

12

18

yield over 120 kg per tree

3,0

18

15

21

Cherry

Before fruiting

-

6

-

-

yield up to 8 kg per tree

1,0

9

6

9

yield 9-15 kg per tree

1,5

12

9

12

harvest over 15 kg per tree

2,0

15

12

15

Plum

Before fruiting

-

6

-

-

yield up to 15 kg per tree

1,0

9

6

9

yield 16-30 kg per tree

1,5

12

9

12

harvest over 30 kg per tree

2,0

15

12

15

Note: in the sod plots nitrogen dose should be increased by 1.5 times.

doses of fertilizers under the berry crops (for soils moderate mobile phosphorus and exchange potassium)

Culture

Period making

doses of fertilizers:

organic (manure, compost), kg / m 2

mineral rk.. W / m2

N

P2O5

K2O

blackcurrant

Before fruiting

-

6

-

-

Start fruiting

2

9

9

6

full fruition

3

12

12

9

currant red, white, gooseberry, chokeberry

Before fruiting

-

6

-

-

Start fruiting

2

9

6

9

full fruition

3

12

9

12

Raspberry

Before fruiting

6 *

6

-

-

fruiting

-

12

12

15

Seabuckthorn

Before fruiting

-

4

-

-

Start fruiting

2

6

9

6

full fruition

3

6

12

9

strawberries *

on mulching

pure steam

8-10

-

9

12

Novosadka

6 *

3

-

.-

first year of fruiting

-

4

3

4

second year of fruiting

-

6

4

6

third year of fruiting

-

6

-

-

for example, you want to make a black currantper 1 m2 to 9 g g power. c.nitrogen (N), phosphorus and potassium 6g.We have a NPK containing 13% nitrogen and 19% phosphorus and potassium.Calculation of doses of NPK hold on to potassium, which will be: 6x100 = 31,6 g 19

Missing amount of nitrogen and phosphorus (3 g ai) fill up urea (46% N) - 6,5 and simple superphosphate (20%P2O5) - '15 Consequently, a black currant, a total of 1 m2 of the power necessary to make 31.6 g of NPK, 6.5 g of urea and 15 g of superphosphate.

If the degree of security the same phosphorus and potassium, the recommended dose in the table multiplied by a correction factor corresponding to a specific portion of the soil.In that case, if the degree of security of these elements is different, the factors to convert doses of nitrogen and organic fertilizers that are taken from graphs given here of the table, where the lowest security.For example, a portion of soil contained 24 milligrams of phosphorus and 6.2 milligrams of potassium, which corresponds to the first case of high and in the second - a low degree of security.It is supposed to receive 65 kilograms of apples from the tree.The recommended dose for the average availability of the soil and the crop per 1 sq.meter are: Organic - 2.5 kilograms of nitrogen - 15 grams -12 phosphorus, potassium - 18 grams.For our example, fertilizers adjusted doses will be: organic - 3.1 kilograms (2.5 x 1.25), nitrogen -18.8 grams (15 x 1.25), phosphorous - 6 (12 x 0.5), potassium- 22.5 grams (18 x 1.25).Now you need to make a conversion to the active substance to the existing fertilizers, and bring them into the soil.

recommended doses of fertilizers are calculated on the average yield of crops.If it is expected a higher (in the period of full fruiting per plant buckthorn - over 9 kg of chokeberry - 12, black currant - 4, red and white currants - 4, gooseberries - 6 with 1 m2 of raspberry, strawberry, 1-2 kg), the dose should be increased by 25%.

Exemplary doses of fertilizers "rare" crops - the edible honeysuckle, lemongrass and Actinidia are given in the table.

Fertilizer "rare" cultural

Culture

Period making

Organic fertilizers, kg / m2

Lime, g / m2

fertilizers, DG.at.1 m2

N

P2O5

K2O

Honeysuckle edible

Before landing (pit 60 x 60 x 50cm)

10-12

200-400

-

20-40

15-20

Young plants

-

-

5

-

-

Fruiting plants

8-10 1 every 3 years

10

15

10

lemongrass

Before landing (pit 60 x 60 x 50 cm)

10-12

200-300

-

50

40

Young plants

-

-

5

-

-

Fruiting plants

-

-

10

15

15

Actinidia

Before landing (pit 60 x 60 x 50 cm)

8-10

200-300

-

20-40

30-40

Young plants

-

-

5

5

5

Fruiting plants

-

-

10

15

15