Methods and frequency of fertilizer application
special place in the system of fertilization of fruit and berry plants are perennial crops, should be given a preplant soil preparation, where possible qualitative improvement of soil structure and nutrient enrichment of the root zone for a longer period of time.It stands at the tab required mandatory application of organic fertilizer.They ensure the preservation and reproduction of humus - soil organic matter, which determines its fertility, improve the physical and chemical properties, and increase the efficiency of application of mineral fertilizers.
In young plantations of pome and stone fruits the first 4-5 years of fertilizers are applied completely over the entire area around-trunk circle.
then expand the application area, scattering them around the tree on the crown projection.Close up digging fertilizer, being careful not to damage the roots: in the trunk - smaller, to the periphery of the crown - deeper.
If the garden is under the sod (with regular mowing of grass and leaving it in place), t
- making an annual early spring high nitrogen fertilizer doses (1.5-2 g ai on1 m2);
- frequent mowing in the first half of the summer - after 7-10 days, then - after 14-20 days, not allowing the height of the grass higher than 10 cm;
- fertilizing grass (after the next mowing) small doses of nitrogen fertilizer simultaneously with watering 2-3 times per season;
- systematic watering the garden in the dry season.
In the fruit-bearing orchards fertilizer scatter evenly over the entire area of tree trunks circles and rows.
can make fertilizer and centers - in wells, grooves or furrows.At 1 m2 make 1-2 wells to a depth of 40 cm (for an adult tree wells 16-25).Fertilizers bring in dry or liquid form, with a mandatory backfilling soil wells.In the second case fertilizers are applied in the furrow or small grooves (depth - 25 cm, width - 25-30 cm) on the projection of the crown of trees.After fertilizing the soil furrows fall asleep.
fertilizing area under gooseberry is mostly under the crown of the bush, currants and raspberries in quickly goes beyond it.The main way of making - completely over the entire area with the incorporation to a depth that does not allow strong root damage.Special care is necessary to plug the fertilizer on raspberries, as its root system is located close to the surface (most saturated layer is 10-20 cm).In addition, save the images on the roots of the kidneys, giving then shoots replacement, which will form a crop, and necessitate careful seal fat.Fertilizer is made entirely on strawberries throughout the area, as its root system is powerful, highly branched and lies shallow (up to 90% of the roots are in the soil layer of 15-20 cm).
Frequency and timing of fertilizer application also depend on the mechanical composition of the soil.Because organic, phosphate and potash fertilizers have sufficient aftereffect on clay and loam soils, they can make periodic 1 every 3-4 years, in autumn or spring, respectively, increasing the dose 3-4raza.On light soils, organic and phosphate fertilizers can be made 1 time in 2 years, and potash - only annually.The time for making - spring.
Nitrogen fertilizers on all soil types bring each year, preferably in two periods: in the first half of the growing season of plants (in spring before flowering), and in late June and early July.
At this time, the nitrogen reserves in the soil are not great, but its consumption of fruit and berry plants are particularly active in the spring and early summer, when intensively growing leaves, shoots and fruits.
On strawberries on all soils, in contrast to other cultures, half the dose of nitrogen introduced in the spring, and the second half and the entire dose of phosphate and potash fertilizer after harvest.This is due to the fact that nitrogen fertilizer made by spring, stronger effect on usoobrazovanie than harvest.Aggravate it making a full dose of nitrogen should not be.In addition, due to the fact that the end of the fruiting strawberry - this time Bookmark future crops, it is very important to give extra food just after harvest.
With regard to forms of nitrogen fertilizer for fruit and berry plants that are suitable almost all are for sale.The most concentrated solid nitrogen fertilizer - urea (or urea).It contains 46% nitrogen.One can also use ammonium sulfate (21% nitrogen) sodium or ammonium sulfate (16% nitrogen).In acidic soils, preference should be given to the sodium (16% nitrogen) or calcium nitrate (17% nitrogen), since they have an alkalizing effect.
For fruit trees and berry bushes need to make any nitrogen from nitrogen fertilizers, focusing on the following approximate doses (1 g per m2): urea - 15-20, calcium nitrate - 40-50, sodium nitrate - 25-30, sulfateammonium - 30-40.If the fall had not been made to phosphate and potash fertilizers in the spring can be given and the tuki.In this case it is convenient to take advantage of complex fertilizers, which have in their composition two or more nutrients.For example, you can make any of the following fertilizers: nitrophosphate - 55-75 g / m2, NPK, karboammofosku, diammonitrofosku - 35-50 g / m2, fruit mix - 100-135 g / m2.
Due to the fact that highly soluble nitrogen fertilizer and easy to move in the soil for uptake by plants deceleration excess amounts of nitrogen can be used slow release nitrogen fertilizer.Their positive property is that they give the plants the batteries gradually as needed.long (sustained) effect of these fertilizers is ensured by coating (encapsulation of granules) special shells varying degrees of permeability, or use as a fertilizer less soluble salts.The most well-known slow release nitrogen fertilizers - MFP (urea fertilizer) containing 38-40% nitrogen, ammonium nitrate zeolite with zeolite additives from 15 to 24% and more.