Apple and pear
Apple tree - this is a very plastic plant, undemanding to growing conditions, so the apple was able to spread from the subtropics to the most northern areas, and even climbed into the mountains, where it grows at an altitude of 2500 meters above sea level.
According footprint apple orchards in third place in the world after the vineyards and olive groves.Even the orange groves take place only after the apple orchards.According to the Bible, the apples were created earlier than we do.Of course, now it is not those wild fruits, which have been known to mankind for 5-6 thousand years ago.Thanks to the work of breeders huge army of apples have become what we are using.They can reach about 1 kg weight and sheer size, have a wide range of color (except blue, blue, purple), take the form of uzkokonicheskoy to round and flattened, have different taste and aroma.In addition, apples are useful to all, without exception, due to the high content of pectin, which helps our body excrete the accumulated to
Pears are also known to mankind for thousands of years.In principle, it is long-lived, with an average age of about 100 years.There are pears that 500 or even 1000 years!Need to say;that if the apple observed periodicity in fruiting (one year empty, another densely year), then the pear fruits on a regular basis.In addition, pear - cross-pollinated plant.It requires at least one more pear, it is desirable to other varieties, while the apple tree can grow in isolation, but also prefers the company.
Pear - plant more demanding to heat and light exposure, rather than an apple tree, and much less plastic, so its distribution area is much smaller than that of the apple.Pear - tall plant, it can reach 25 m in height and trunk of a pear can clasp hands only three men.Wood from trees extremely durable and used in the production of lathe for the production of musical instruments, decorative sculpture, jewelry.
Its fruits can reach 2 kg!Pears although tasty and useful, but much smaller than the apples.In addition, they contain virtually no pectins, but it has a pear fruit arbutin and pears because especially useful for people with kidney disease, and urinary tract.Although polysaccharides pear fruit contains much less than in apple fruits, they seem sweeter because they contain organic acids and less.In apples and pears have much in common, especially in the selection of landing sites, in the requirements for growing conditions, methods of planting.They have common pests and diseases, and therefore there will be talks about all the apple, as it is also nice for pears.Special specific only to the nuances of pear will simply further emphasized.
What love apples and pears? Like most plants, apple prefers soil with a neutral, at least with weak acid, rich in organic matter and potassium.It kalielyubivoe plant, do not forget about it!Pear also refers to a group kalielyubov, however, it takes a few more phosphorus and less potassium than an apple tree.But at the same apple tree will grow and bear fruit, even on clay or peat bog, on a sandy and stony ground, is quite meager.In principle, the plant enough water-loving, small nose tolerate drought well.It carries a fairly large frosts, and therefore was able to settle down in a rather harsh northern latitudes.Apple trees need a good place in the sun.It is, of course, put up with the penumbra, but in a wet area like the North-West, where so little light in the penumbra apple will quickly begin to overcome the lichen.
What do not like apples and pears? Carbonate or acidic soils, saline soils.Too dry place apple does not fit, does not fit, and very hot, humid climate, and therefore does not grow an apple tree in the rainforest.But most importantly, she does not like standing close to groundwater.Once in a layer of water-logged, plant roots rot and the tree dies.
Selecting varieties for the North-West region
best varieties - it's still a variety of national selection, because for many years cultivated in the area.
for the most severe, the north-eastern areas of the Leningrad region, as well as the Valdai Hills and the Vologda region can recommend summer apple varieties - Daughter Papirovka (Papirovka new) Mironchik, yellow sugar, Round Voronin Solntsedar.From autumn varieties are suitable Autumn striped (Shtreyfling), Cinnamon striped, Baltika, Borovinka, long, oval Voronin Bessemyanka Nikolskaya, Gift and small-fruited apple Gornoaltaisk, Antonovka-Kitaika, Ural filler.You can try to grow a winter variety of apple Bashkir handsome.
pear varieties Ural and Siberian breeding - Theme, Olga, Golf, Gourmet, Moon.However, I must honestly say that is not very suitable for them, the Northwest climate.
for warmer, south-western areas of the Leningrad region and Pskov and Novgorod regions (with the exception of the Valdai Hills), a large selection of early varieties of apple trees.Of the early varieties of apple trees here once great fruited Breading (Alabaster) and White filling.But these varieties are outdated.They should not be planted.It is better to buy a daughter Papirovka or Memory Lavrik or Wine can put Suyslepskoe.It mantet too good, but only in the warm southern zone of Leningrad region and Pskov.Suitable for all areas, except the northernmost, Arcade yellow, fragrant, daughter Melba, Korobovka, Grushovka Moscow, Lungwort, Solntsedar, E10 lskoe Chernenko Kitaika gold and, of course, all that is recommended for the first, the most severe, the climate zone.According to the observations of gardeners Leningrad region, Lungwort and Mantet we did freeze slightly, however, fairly easy to recover.Old folk varieties Korobovka and perry Moscow though less tasty, but in the North-West region of apple completely unproblematic.
From autumn apple varieties for the North-West zoned Autumn striped, Cinnamon striped, Tambov, Melba (Blue Tit), Izhora, Bessemyanka Michurina, Baltika, Zhiguli, Seedling require (Riga dove), People, Sweet Isayev, Dessert Petrov Auksis,Orel garland.Anis scarlet, Borovinka.
pear easiest to grow early varieties of folk selection - Tonkovetka, Dulya Novgorod, Bessemyanka, Bere Luts, Severyanka and varieties by breeders - Pushkinskaya Chizhovsky memorabilia.All of them reach biological ripeness in early September.Shelf life is not more than 2-3 weeks.Later varieties that can be removed at the end of September and the store about 3 to 4 weeks: Bere winter, Petrovka Severyanka, Finland yellow - the variety of national selection, as well as the varieties developed by breeders professionals: Leningrad, Marble, Fancy Efimova, Cathedral,Bright (creeping), Krasnobokaya, Muscovite, Moscow, Lada.All
autumn varieties - basic assortment of apple and pear trees in this region.
Winter varieties ripen, unfortunately, not every year, but only when there is a long warm autumn, no sudden frost.Nevertheless, it is good at such varieties: Cinnamon new, Anis striped, Antonovka ordinary, asterisk, friendly, Reinette Chernenko Tellisaare, Talve Nouding (Winter pleasure), Pepin saffron, Ladoga, Lobo, Norma, Amber Long, Gornoaltaisk, Dobrynya, Silver hoof.It should be said, Pepin saffron, we have failed to do at all, since much freezes.Although variety and zoned for the Leningrad region, but grows without any problems in the southern part of the region, as well as in Novgorod and Pskov regions.From the late varieties Antonovka all love, but, alas, this Antonovka almost gone and sold, as a rule, its various clones and hybrids produced on its basis.I want to warn you: do not want the headaches - do not put late varieties.In the Leningrad region, they ripen to maturity removable only occasionally, in a particularly favorable, long warm autumn, frost-free.Current that these apples will delight you once in 5-6 years.
All varieties referred to more northern areas, of course, suitable for growing in more southerly.For other regions of the specified range can be greatly expanded as the local varieties and bred breeders, zoned for the area.
Storing fruits.Fruits before storage should be wiped with a cloth soaked in glycerine or food boiled vegetable oil.This will help prevent loss of moisture in the fruit and keep them wrinkle.In keeping laying only fruits or srednepozdnih medium and late varieties.
Pears summer varieties, as well as the early varieties of apples are not stored more than 2 to 3 weeks, they have to eat, and do not wipe with a cloth.
How to deal with Apple tree blossom beetle?Sometimes gardeners discover this worm, which is located in the young ovaries - Ovary irredeemably spoiled;apple from it will not grow.Nasty beetle goose, bronze-green in color, with a proboscis like a weevil.As weevil, he gnaws bud and lays an egg in it.
After hatching from it the larva feeds on the growing ovary and falls with dumps ovary to the ground, crawls out and goes windfalls for pupation in the upper soil layer.It is clear that it is necessary to deal with a threat at the time of separation of buds, that is, when a handful of tight buds begin to be nominated.Effective this fight just before the start of bud staining pink.When the buds are fully colored, larva already inside, and the ovary is still ruined.
The spray?The fact that the pest disorienting, that is an outsider and a strong smell to knock weevil confused: like the smell of the plants breadwinner, and at the same time different.Do not think that only the animal care about their offspring.Insects and even plants also take care of their offspring.Therefore, the pests will not condemn their offspring hunger, leaving him in a suspicious place.Hence the recommendations: spray your garden at the time of separation of buds (terms, of course, different for each plant) infusion needles;tansy, onion peel, citrus peels, weeds and so on.You can use malathion or "Fufanon", but only until any blooming plants in the garden.In addition, you should know that these drugs have a relatively high inhalation toxicity, that is, get in your body when breathing heavily and "planted" liver.So gauze bandage is required.
Top unfolding leaves sprayed apple "fitoverm".By the way, the drug is compatible with the "Appin-extra" and "Zirconia" (or from "Healthy Garden» and «Ekoberinom").Therefore, if the pests have been many previous summer, just add 5-6 drops of the drug in recommended above spring cocktail.
Pear blossom weevil mainly operates in the southern regions of Russia.
female codling sawfly immediately after flowering lays eggs at the base of the ovary.Hatched larvae gnawing under the skin of the ovary.Sawfly larva eats the flesh of an apple-tree apple, leaving a thin strokes filled with her black feces.Unlike moth caterpillars, sawfly larva in an apple is doing numerous inputs and outputs, and crawl one apple to another, without falling on the ground.Like a caterpillar moth, a pest that can ruin alone to 4 apples.This apple can not fall down on the ground and apparently has quite a nice view, except for a subtle pest entry and exit holes.Methods of dealing with sawfly are the same as with the apple trees blossom beetle, and in the same terms, ie at the time of separation of buds.
Pear sawfly is found mainly in the south of Russia.
Less common apple and fruit moth, are eating the leaves, rolled up their remnants in the spider cocoons.They are clearly visible.Early spring spraying the above cocktail completely save you from these unwanted guests.But, if the pest settled na trees, immediately sprinkle them "fitoverm" (or "Iskra-bio"), a solution of 1 mm in the Z fluid liters of water.
After flowering (about two weeks) moth lays her eggs on young, actively growing ovary apple, so it's time to repeat spring cocktail or at least spray the trees «Healthy Garden" with "Fitofermom".it does not touch the bulb.
moth caterpillar eats seeds (which causes falling of the ovaries), and then falls to the ground on cobweb (or falls with windfalls), and at night comes out of the windfall and then climbs up a tree to take root in the next ovary.One caterpillar can ruin 6-8 ovaries.So gather windfalls in the evening and put the trapping zone, if windfalls have only one opening (moth climbs and select one pass).
How to get rid of the moth?The most effective way - the systematic garden spraying homeopathic preparation "Healthy Garden".The fact that the moth flies all summer, starting in June (two weeks after flowering apple trees Summer varieties).There is a common recommendation - catch males or feraponnye traps, or jars of fermented kvass or other liquid.
This odor similar to the smell of females and males "bought" it.That may be so, but only the males fly from all around.Hundreds fall into the trap, and the one hundred and first will fertilize the female.Why szyvat them everywhere?They, on the contrary, it should scare away from your garden with the help of misleading odors.The female is also taking care of your child, will not postpone egg in the ovary plant, to which mixed with the smell suspicious odors.Will not she leave offspring and ovaries, in which few carbohydrates.That this is something you sprinkle the garden, such as apple, drug "Healthy Garden".
late autumn should once again spray the whole garden with a concentrated solution of any mineral fertilizer (700 g of chlorine-free potassium or 700 g of urea or ammophoska and so on for 10 liters of water).
dishes with apples and pears
This is a simple dish of sweet apples.
with apple cut "cap", remove the core and fill it with sugar."The lid was" slide into place.Put on a baking sheet and bake in the oven over medium heat until tender.
Note.Early varieties of apples are not suitable as they crawl into mush.
No honey, they do not just taste they do honey.
1 kg of apples, 1 liter of water, 1 kg of sugar, 1 lemon, 1 hr. Teaspoon cinnamon.
Apple peel and grate.Cover with cold water, add sugar and cinnamon.Cook, stirring, over medium heat, until the apples are cooked.Add the juice of one lemon, boil.Remove from heat and pour into banks.cover with a rubber stamp, tie.Unusually tasty!
apples for dessert and pie fillings
apples peel and core, cut into wedges or slices.Fold pieces in a colander and drop into boiling water for 2-3 minutes.To take out a colander and immediately upload the contents into a sterile jar.When the bank is full on a hanger, pour the boiling syrup to the top of the banks and roll.
for this workpiece is more convenient to use three-liter jars.In this case it is very useful for vacuum lid "Wax", as will repeatedly open and close the jar.If you use conventional lids every time banks have perezakatyvat or cook dessert apples in small banks, which also require a lot of covers.Opened jars with dessert can be no more than a week in the refrigerator.
syrup used for preparing water from the blanching added per liter of 300 g of liquid sugar.Keep refrigerated.
For dessert, serve on plates, top watering sour cream or 30% cream, or used for filling in pies.
Apple jam with lemon or orange
1 kg of apples, 1 cup sugar, 1 lemon or orange.
Apples are cleaned, cut into slices, pour half the sugar.
Store in a cool place.Keep refrigerated.Keep refrigerated.
Note.Store at room temperature.Store at room temperature.