Planting apple trees in autumn
Planting When to plant apple (and pear)?Generally speaking, in the spring.In the Northwest the best planting time - May.Apple - sonulya, she wakes up relatively late, late unfolds leaves, the root system starts to work only when the soil warms in the zone of occurrence of up to 8 degrees of suction roots.In the Northwest poor in humus soil, so they are cold.Warms up slowly due to the fact that from the lower layers of the earth is cold, and the elevated temperature is not high, it is because the top layer also warms slowly.In such circumstances, apple half asleep easily transportable and transplant in May.
When buying apple inspect the roots carefully.If they too had dried and they have no young roots, do not take a sapling.To sense from it will not be enough.Therefore, in all sorts of exhibitions and fairs seedlings better not to buy, because the plant material, usually imported, and from the southern regions of the country.Firstly, the imported varieties are not zoned for other reg
now often sell planting in containers.However, this does not always mean;that is really a sapling grown in a container.More often than not you just make a fool of her head.Dig plants, stuck them in plastic bags with earth and assure customers that a seedling grown in a container.This is certainly better than to carry them up for sale with open root system.However, for a long time to keep the containers in such plants should not be.They should be planted as soon as possible, because when digging sucking all of the root system was still broken.In addition, buying a seedling in a container, you do not see it the root system, and it may be there and not be so one stump instead of roots and all.Before buying a seedling, first make sure that it really is grown in the container.Turn the container, and a look at its bottom.If the drainage holes of sticking the young growing roots, then it's really grown in the container and the suction part of the root system intact.But if you stick out from hole thick stumps or nothing sticks out, then you risk to buy a pig in a poke.Better not to buy.Because planting today is not cheap, the tree will grow 5-6 years (if you do not die during this time), then you will find that buying one, and has grown quite different.The apple tree is planted for the long haul, so to buy planting material Treat very reasonable and serious.Take the time for a trip to a good nursery.
If the seedling is really grown in a container, and even in your area, this is the best planting material.Firstly, it is first grown from seed in the same region, where he will grow, but because the seedling immediately adapted to local weather conditions.Second, it made an inoculation well of zoned in the area of sorts.Third, seedling that is grown in cramped conditions, comes into bearing quickly (often already at the 2-3rd year of life begins to blossom right in the container).Moreover, for the transplant to place this property is preserved.Fourth, a seedling can be transplanted at any time, from spring to autumn, because it does not need time to settle down in a new place, it just continues to grow, as well as grow.It goes without saying that when planting the seedling is released on the container.Buying seedlings in containers is very convenient if you are not ready to seat.Just leave the tree to grow in a container, do not forget to water it only, and are preparing themselves to him a permanent place.
If you purchased a one-year seedling, grown not in a container, and the seat is not prepared for it, then put him on the bed of any vegetable.May is the first year older, and you in this time prepare for him a permanent place and transplant it into place next spring.You can dig seedling spring and again put in the same place until the following spring.This triple-planting transplants causes the plant to survive the stresses, and they help to strengthen the wood.He will be large, good quality apples.Sometimes wilding, grown from the seeds of ripe apple (certainly recognized varieties), transplanted three times, a remarkably large and delicious fruit.
Prepare seat for permanent residence should be the apple without any hurry, because you plant an apple tree for many years.In principle, the apple tree can grow and bear fruit up to 100 years or more.There are apple-centenarians living in this world for 300 years.But in the Northwest apple trees begin to die, mainly because of the death of the cortex, at a young age - 20-25 years.But this is a considerable period, so try to prepare a good place to land.
First of all, it is necessary to pick up on the site is a place that the trees were covered by the northern winds.Better if on the northern border there are other plants, such as spruce, maples (of course, beyond the boundaries of your site), Saskatoon, red mountain ash, buckthorn.In the south, in front of the house, you can put a couple of fruit trees, but the garden should not be planted, because after a dozen years before the house will be a solid shadow, which will grow well only grass.And some areas we are small, and the precious area under the sun should not squander.
Fruit trees can be placed in 1 -2 rows along one of the site boundaries (but not from the south!), Departing from the neighbor's property line, as expected, 3-4 m. For these precious meters did not disappear, will land among the trees andborder berry bushes.For example, it is possible to plant raspberries (which is very friendly with the apple tree, also can bear fruit in the penumbra) and black currants (which can also bear fruit in the penumbra), leaving to the border of 1 to 1.5 m to 1, it was convenient to work with berries,without going over the border.The root system of raspberries and black currants is located in the surface layer of soil, and the root system is located below the apple, so between berry bushes and trees will not compete for moisture and nutrition.
With regular planning area (and therefore the landing) and a series of tracks.The area is used very efficiently, and can be placed to quite a few plants on 6 acres.
Trees are planted at a distance of 4 m from each other, and shrubs - 1 - 1.5 m
If the site you have more, you can plant trees in a group of one or two places in a 4 x 4 m Then do not necessarily..straight track - make their g sinuous, flowing around a group planting.Visually, this free garden composition with winding paths increases space of the garden, but the plants pas 1 the same area as that of a regular layout, located far less.
Typically, as mentioned above, the fruit trees planted in the spring.But a seat for the trees to be prepared in the fall.It all depends on what your soil and the depth at which the groundwater occur.If the site or clay loam, the pit can not plant trees.Clay is water during autumn rains landing pit filled with water.In winter it will be chilled through, which, of course, cause the death of the root system.You can not put in the pit and on the moors, and where groundwater lies close (less than 1 m).In all these cases it is necessary to pour the hills, about 60-80 cm in height and a diameter of at least 1 m. In subsequent years, the hill should be expanded.It's enough to fill the compost heap around him, and to the perimeter of the tree had a neat appearance, pour each time over the debris and weed the weeds peat or sand.If you use peat, then remember that it acidifies the soil under the apple tree, but she prefers soil with a neutral reaction, so the peat it is necessary to add the ashes at the rate of one half-liter jars for each bucket of peat (or 1 cup of lime or dolomite).
Where to get as much land for the bulk of the hill?You simply add directly to the ground under the future hill trash.Since the beginning of lay a layer of stone, slate or broken red bricks to prevent the roots to grow down, where they will die.Peresloite all that any land that will be able to nagresti on the site and its vicinity.Then add to this place torn, old books (this is, of course, barbarism, but agree that many of the published books that only fate and worthy), magazines, pieces of old boards, large branches, chips, pieces of cardboard, unnecessary things from cottonor wool (not synthetic rot, and only pollutes the soil, so it should not be put).And again, all this alternating ground.Then make black and white crumpled paper (a small amount of colored material is permissible, but color glossy illustrations - no, because of the presence in them of a large amount of harmful dyes).This layer should be made scavengers: ash, dolomite, lime, what you can find, at the rate of 1 cup of lime or dolomite to each bucket of earth or 1 half-liter ash bank.Then, the summer can at this point to put a compost pile, prisypaya weed weeds and scum of food and feces from the toilet soil, sand or peat.From time to time, add a handful of superphosphate.If you want, you can compost pile to water solution of "Baikal EM-1", "Renaissance" or "Kompostina" or make "The Shining".These drugs will speed up digestion compost.By next spring, bunch of lands on two-thirds of the height, so the fall of its height should be at least 1.2 m in spring, before planting, pour a bunch of potassium solution that does not contain chlorine, namely:. 3 tbsp.spoon or sulphate of potash (or better still potassium nitrate) for 10 liters of water.In the autumn of potassium make no sense because during the autumn rains and winter thaws water solution and wash it in the lower layers.On top, add the usual ground, which you can find a layer of about 40 cm.
On close distance of groundwater, as well as peat-marshy soil should not be allowed the growth of the main root deep down.We must get him to branch out to the root system has a horizontal upper soil layer.On clays and going, but in other cases (except landing on sandy soils) must immediately make an obstacle for deeper root growth.To this end, the bottom of the seat, pour a layer of stones, broken bricks, pottery shards, pieces of slate, and then make the soil.This is especially true for the pear in the Northwest, because pears tap root system and the central root goes to a depth of 4 m, and pear completely can not stand waterlogged soil, the more stagnant water or groundwater.
If you have a common soil (sandy loam or light loam, and even more, arable land), then you can put all on a flat surface.It is only necessary to remove the top layer of soil.Turn the sod and place it around the seat, creating a frame.Remove the roots and rhizomes of perennial weeds.Make a small indentation (15-20 cm), tilt the excavated earth on framing.Make a mound in the center of the recess fertile, moist soil and planted a sapling on the mound.On top sprinkle with a good ground flush with the frame.
But if you sand, you have to dig a planting hole measuring 80 x 80 x 80 cm. In the lower part of the hole to make the same stuff that was recommended to build a hill above the ground.Followed sphagnum-moss add it to retain moisture and nutrients.After that, fill the pit fertile ground (or the whole summer put in her compost).On the next spring to plant a sapling.
Most gardeners plant apple and pear, cherry or plum someone in the pit, who is on a hill and end in this his concern for the trees.But this is not true!Roots grow in all directions, and gradually pit or mound they are small.In addition, a small hill easily freeze through.Therefore, at least every two years, the landing area should be gradually expanded, until it is the size of 4 x 4 M. If the seedling is planted in a hole, you have to dig around the perimeter of the crown of the tree ditch on a bayonet spade and fill it gradually during the summerweeds and garbage.By next year, all of this will turn into polukompost.When planting the hill each year to pour on the perimeter of the crown compost and soil, extending the hill the border until you create the necessary area of nutrition for adult apple the size of 4 x 4 m.
Almost all authors of books on agriculture recommended before planting dip rootsseedling in a clay mash.But it is well known that clay is moisture, so the roots do not dry off, but they take the water out of the soil can not.On the contrary, before boarding any seedling, be sure to put in water for 2-3 hours to be fed with wood moisture, and then immediately planted in place.
not hold water the seedlings before planting more than 2-3 hours, they lose much of potassium, and it reflected badly on their survival and future growth.
Contrary wandering from book to book to established guidelines, do not trample down the soil after planting subtrees.Padded treading moist soil badly passes air, and the roots will experience oxygen starvation.To fill the void, and the soil adhered to the roots on all sides, we must not trample on, and gradually pour in the roots on top of the soil and then watered with water from the watering can to pour again, and again watering.
Here are some water and wash away the soil in the voids and stuck to the moist soil all the roots, to the same leave free access of air to the roots.So stop follow-rooted in the books of the wrong advice.
After planting a sapling should tie up, otherwise the wind in the loose soil blabbed root system, and a seedling drop.But here's how to tie?You, of course, pay attention to how to tie plants when landscaping the city?Here and tie - to three stakes.This is the most reliable way.And if you are used to bind to two, then drive in the stakes are not from the south and north of the seedlings, as recommended in books (clarification in this regard unintelligible) and drive in the pins in the direction of the prevailing winds in your area.In the North-West is dominated by westerly winds, so the stakes have to drive to the west and east of the seedlings.Then harness will keep the seedling from swinging wind.If you plant one year old twig or planted plants grown in a container, then it should not be tied up.
There is another nuance.The plant develops properly, when between its root system and aerial part there is a balance.When planting the root system it is broken, sucking root hairs are broken, bad and seedling supplies vlagy upstairs.A leaf with a moisture evaporated as if nothing had happened, so there is the barrel dehydration.Sometimes, after landing there such a picture.Planted tree or shrub, plant leaves dissolved and suddenly for no reason at all withered, despite abundant watering.To avoid this, it is necessary to shorten the landing above-ground part of the plant, that is, to shorten the center conductor and all the branches in the quarter (and in the dry season, even a third) of their length.Then the balance between a weakened root system and the above-ground part is too big for her to recover and the seedling is well accustomed.This, of course, does not apply to seedlings grown in a container.
Big mistake - deep planting of seedlings.Usually this results in a delay in the timing of entry into fruiting tree.In addition, deep planting contributes to the appearance of the root shoots.Trees generally have to stand on the roots.The thick, extending from the trunk of the roots - is "conducting sewage water system", so to speak.These roots do not absorb, and only spend nutritious juices up and down.