The conditions required for the distillation
Those who have decided to learn the distillation must have an understanding of development and periods of rest, following in the life of the plant to each other.
known that in the lives of most biennials or perennials required rest period.And part of this time the plants are "asleep" and at other times they do not develop due to adverse weather conditions -. Low temperatures, lack of light and other "Dream" the first kind is called a deep peace, and the second - forced rest.
to interrupt the forced rest is enough to create favorable conditions and to interrupt the deep peace, it is necessary to use special means of influence -. Treatment with carbon dioxide, acid, warm irrigation, negative temperatures, etc.
The main factor influencing the time of flowering, can be regarded as the temperature.
Method warm baths used in the distillation of lilac and other decorative shrubs (Forsythia, peach, azalea, and others.).With this method, plants or shoots, branches, stems immersed in water at 30-40 C for 9-12
temperature and duration of exposure depends on the timing of forcing and plant species.For example, lily rhizomes at forcing early November should be immersed in warm water for 12-14 hours, the water temperature should be 40 ° C, and if forcing Examples 5
stepping in late December, sufficient water temperature 32 ° C.The warm water affects (interrupts vacation) only those shoots or parts thereof that are subject to the procedure.A variation of the method - distillation using steam: the plants are placed in a greenhouse at a temperature of 43 CC and irrigate every thirty minutes.This high temperature is necessary during the distillation of October, and in January lilies bloom at a temperature of 28 ° C.
used for distillation and cooling method.This is one of the most common ways to interrupt a period of rest, which is usually used for distillation bulbous plants.
In this case, intended for forcing bulbs in a state of deep rest, for 2-5 weeks placed in the refrigerator or cellar, where the temperature is maintained at 0-5 ° C.The duration of this operation depends on how deep state of rest.The less time the plant before the end of this period, the shorter the cooling time.When the deep peace and end the plant will go into a state of enforced rest, so that they bloom, it will be sufficient simply increasing the temperature of the premises.
can expel plants blossoming in the spring and fall.So, daisy, anemone et al., Planted in autumn or winter in the room, can bloom as early as December.Blooming gladioli can both speed up and delay.For forcing bulbs of their store from November to mid-December at a temperature of 17 ° C and then at 20 ° C until late January-early February.
to delay flowering bulbs are cooled in the cellar from January to early June (at a temperature of 2-4 ° C), so that in the ground, they bloom for a month, and second and a half later than usual.
Light - the second most important factor (after the tamper-6 tours) that can speed up or slow down the flowering.
For many plants established a clear relationship between flowering and length of daylight.Covering the plants a long day in the period, when the days are short, it is possible to accelerate their flowering, and vice versa: the reduction of daylight up to 8-10 hours promotes earlier flowering of short-day plants.
skilfully varying the temperature and light, you can achieve year-round cultivation of chrysanthemums, freesias, kalanchoe, gladiolus and others.
Scientists were able to get a substance that can be used to speed up or slow down the beginning of flowering.In recent years these drugs were on the market.
What is the matter?
auxins - a group of substances (alpha-naphthylacetic, beta-ylacetic indole, beta-indolebutyric acid) that enhance rooting, rooting, plant growth slowing at the same time a bookmark of flower buds.Auxins are used in the form of powders, at least - solutions.
Gibberelliny (gibberellin A1, A2, A3, A4, and so on. E., Gibberellic acid) stimulate the growth in height (by lengthening the cells and partially due to their rapid division) and contribute to the conclusion of plant dormancy.Hyacinths and azaleas treated with substances of this group, to exit from the period of rest does not require cooling.
Tsitoksiny (benzyladenine, kinetin) used the day acceleration of seed germination, sprouting is usually very slow and disjointed.Tsitoksiny increase branching plants and "awaken" the kidneys.
substances which inhibit the growth of plants, -absiizovaya acid and others. They enhance the frost resistance of plants and their resistance to adverse atmospheric effects, increase the number of kidney and colors.These substances are used, for example, in greenhouse cultivation of roses (for reducing the interstices and more solid stems).7
humidity and soil nutrition can also influence the timing of flowering.All these factors need to work interconnected.Only in this way you can ensure that distillation will be carried out.
We must remember the rule: accelerate flowering metered feeding nitrogen, with increased doses of potassium.Excessive application of nitrogen, as a rule, extend the growing season and delay flowering.
There are techniques to delay flowering.As a rule, this plant creates less favorable conditions for development.If, for example, the optimum temperature for this type of - 16 ° C, then it was lowered to 10-12 ° C.At the same time the vital processes in the plant are slowed down, and its flowering is delayed.You can manipulate the light and if, for example, in addition to cover chrysanthemum or poinsettia, their growth will continue, and laying flower buds and blooms - slow down.And vice versa: to delay flowering long-day plants, they should be shaded.
Not all ornamental plants are capable of forcing, but the bulbs are considered to be the best-governmental vygonoch plants.