Distillation - tulip - Tulipa L.
Tulip (Tulipa Liliaceae) - is the most common flower culture, which in value is on a par with roses and cloves.
It is grown in all countries, and the ability to tulip forcing winter allows you to have flowering plants almost year round.
In nature, we know of about 140 species of tulips growing in mountain and steppe regions of Central Asia and Asia Minor, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus and Western Siberia.
first tulip garden forms have been received, in all probability, in Persia.There is a plant has been called "tulip" for its resemblance to the flower headdress turban -Head Eastern peoples.From Persia, tulips were in Turkey, where he began work on the elimination of grades.By XIV century there were about three hundred.From Turkey, tulips were brought to European countries.
most favorable to the tulip were soil and climatic conditions of the Nether- 21
Landes, where engaged in industrial breeding tulip so far, whence comes tulip bulbs in all countries of the world.
in this country is being breed
Currently, there are more than three thousand varieties of tulips, different in shape and color of the flower.
In Russia tulips were brought from Holland in the early XVII century, and they have been used mainly for distillation.
bulb before planting in the fall is made up of several (4-6) of fleshy scales, is the repository of spare nutrients.
Scales closed and covered with dense brown scales that protects the bulb from mechanical damage.Scales are attached to the Donets, which is a shorter stem.
between the scales laid buds from which the formed daughter bulbs.In the center of the bulbs laid escape next year, by autumn it had already formed the beginnings of all plant organs - stem, leaves, flower.
On the downside, the stems of the root is laid roll, from which the roots are formed as soon as the bulb is planted in the soil.Better rooting takes place at a fairly low (5-10 ° C) temperature of the soil, so the early planting is undesirable.
stalk tulips with 2-4 (rarely 1-12) leaves with 1-2 erect flowers, buds though some species are drooping.
tulip leaves or broadly lanceolate, usually of 2-4, but the young are not flowering plants 22 develops only one leaf.
Their color is green, but in some species and their hybrids leaves have a purplish-brown stripes and spots.
Flower in most species and varieties of tulip single, only a small number of species (tulip wood, superior, Turkmen, and others.) And multiflorous varieties of them is 2-5 on one stalk.
diverse flower form - from the goblet up and cupped liliales, there are varieties with double flowers.
When the flowers open wide temperature - this is due to the expansion of the inner side lobe cells.At lower temperatures the flowers are closed due to expansion outside of the cell.
For the distillation of the most suitable asian, tubular, Longiflorum hybrids.
distillation of success, especially in the early stages, is determined by a consistent impact on the bulb and developing of them high and low temperature plants.
Preparing bulbs begins during the growing season tulips.Behind them are meticulous care, conduct frequent fertilizing, watering, decapitation - remove flower heads - in short, everything that ensures the development of a fully fledged bulbs.
When storing after digging (June-October) in the bulbs is the formation of a new escape authorities, including the flower.
temperatures have been identified, the time and duration of exposure, leading to the acceleration of these processes, that determines the timing of plant flowering in distillation.It is found that the effect on the bulbs in certain periods or at 9 5 ° C accelerates flowering for 2 weeks.
recommend the following storage mode tulip bulbs destined for distillation.23
Fig.tulip flower forms: 1, 2 - oval;3 - cupped;4 - liliales;5, 6 - the cup-shaped;7 - Terry: 8 - parrot;9 - stellate
bulbs storage mode tulips intended date of distillation
Storage temperature ° C
very early (25 / XII)
(25 / XII - 1 / CI) Average (l / II-25 /III) Late
(1 / IV- yv)
20 20 23 23
7 (17 days) 9 (23 days)
20 23 23
9 9 17 20
For forcing bulbs are suitable only large 1st fraction or extra-class, no smaller than 4 cm in diameter.Dug out the bulbs are dried at 20 ° C as long as the bulb is not fully formed bud.They were then transferred to a cool room (9 ~ 12 ° C) with a humidity of 70-80%, where the bulbs are left before planting.
tulips are planted in pots or boxes.Zeklyanuyu mixture is prepared from 1 part humus, 1 part dernooy earth and 1 part river washed sand.The pot is planted 2-3 bulbs at a distance of 1-1.5 cm apart, planting depth is such that the tip of the bulb was on the ground level.
landing abundantly watered and put in a cool place (cellar, shed, greenhouse deep) for rooting.For this purpose they need to survive for 40-45 days at 4 to 5 ° C.If you do not provide such conditions, the root system is weak and further
After rooting tulips transferred to a room with a temperature of 12-15 ° C.At home, it can be a place at the balcony door, on the window sill, at least fenced off from the newspaper is too warm and dry indoor air.At this time, it begins shoot growth.To leaf bud not delayed development and to stem stretched out, it is necessary to shade the plant.Boxes covered with loose soil with peat or leaf-bed of 10-12 cm, and the individual pots can cover caps of black paper or an inverted pot, which closed the lower opening.Under these conditions, to leave tulips until the plants had reached a height of 10-12 cm (about 1.5-2 months).Then shading is removed and the plants put first on ambient light to the leaves took a green color (about a week), and then - in the lighted and warm (20-22 ° C) the place where the distillation takes place, ie, staining and buds..bloom.To prolong the bloom up to 10-14 days, plants should be at least for a night in a cool place (10-12 ° C) place.During the period of distillation of the soil should be kept moist (but not waterlogged).To
tulips in bloom between at 15. XII 5. I, after 28 days of excavation is stored at a temperature of 20 CC, 10 days at a temperature of 17 ° C and then to planting - at 9 ° C.Planting bulbs with 20. IX by 1. X, perpetuate at a temperature of 9 ° C.The greenhouse pots tolerate 20-25.XI.Expels flowers at a temperature of 23 ° C.To
colors between at 6. I 30. I, after 21 days digging bulbs kept at 20 ° C and then at a temperature of 17 ° C.Planted them 1. X-15.X, perpetuate at 9-5 C. The pots are transferred to the greenhouse 20. XII and kicked flowers at a temperature of 20-22 "C
Just keep the bulbs if necessary tulips in February and March. Planted them, respectively, in the WTO-26 swarm half of October or the first half of November
early December temperature rooting -.. 9 ~ 2 ° C (the later distillation, the lower the temperature) Pots transferred to the greenhouse, respectively, 10. I, 1. II, 20. II. planted flowers at a temperature of 20-16 ° C.
Recently developed less time consuming distillation tulips method called "color degrees-method". It consists of the following. After excavation of the ground for a week tulips maintained at 34 °Since then two weeks -. at 20 0C
then the bulbs at least nine weeks stored at 5 ° C and then used for early forcing for the late forcing bulbs stored initially at a temperature of 17-20 ° C, then at a minimum.CID 12 weeks 5 ° C.
Bulbs are planted in the greenhouse, and after 5-6 weeks of blooming tulips.
Therefore, if bulbs are planted 1 November, the flowers are available 13-20 December;November 15 - December 27 bloom tulips - January 3, Dec. 1 - January 5-12, etc. During rooting indoor temperature is maintained at 12-12 ° C, and then -.. 15-17 ° C.
Tulips cut when the buds are fully colored, but not yet reveal.
After flowering watering is gradually stopped, and when the leaves turn yellow, stop watering completely and leave the plants in dry land to complete drying of the shoot, and then the bulbs can be dug, cleaned and stored at room temperature until the fall.
After forcing bulbs shrinking and no longer suitable for secondary distillation.They can be planted in the fall in the ground and grow to a large bulb.
Not all varieties of tulips are suitable for forcing.The best are the class of simple varieties of early, double early, Triumph, Darwin's hybrids.
Description vygonochnyh varieties.Lucid.Plant height 35 cm, dark red flower with yellow border, 27
flower round center, bright yellow, the edges of light green, flower diameter - 5.5 cm
Sunburst..Powerful plant height of 35-40 cm, up to 60 cm. In May blossoms, blooms 2 weeks.Flower large, up to 10 cm tall, broadly ovate shape, golden yellow, with carmine-red strokes, the bottom of the yellow and yellow anthers.Gives stable early cut flowers, variegated does not suffer.
Dante.Flower purplish red, 6-7 cm in diameter, thick-terry, black anthers.The height of 20-25 cm. The bottom yellow.
Oranje Nassau.Flower 7 cm tall, orange-red on the outside and at the bottom with a purple tint.Plant height of 25-30 cm.
Shonord.White with yellow base, large, double flowers of 7.5 cm in height.Plant height of 35-40 cm.
Aviator.Carmine-red, with a grayish-white border flower, bottom cream, black anthers.Goblet, 7-9 cm in height.Plant height 40-55 cm.
Virtuoso.Flower lilac-pink, bottom white, purple anthers.Plant height of 50-60 cm.
Zhakus Fet.Plant height is 60 cm, height 5 cm flower, goblet, red, with a yellow border, the center of the flower a round, bright yellow stamens and purple anthers.
Krelyazh Triumph.Flower elongated, 8.5 cm high, ruby red, the bottom of the blue-green, with a yellow border, purple anthers.The height of 30-35 cm.
Olga.Violet-red, with white edges, white bottom with a purple border, black anthers.Goblet, large, about 7-8 cm in height.Plant height of about 45-50 cm.
Remagen.Flower purple-red, white bottom, dark anthers.Goblet, large, tall up to 28 9 cm. Plant height 35-45 cm.
Apeldoorn.Bright red inside, outside with cherry hue, the bottom of the black, with a yellow border, black anthers.Goblet flowers, 8 cm in height.Plant height of 55-60 cm.
Beauty Apeldoorn.Golden yellow, with black bottom and black anthers.The flower is very large, up to 12 cm in height, goblet.Plant height 65-70 cm.
Canopus.Bright red, dim outside, inside shiny, greenish-black bottom, with small yellow areas.Anthers purple.Large, height 9 ~ 10 cm ball-shaped flower.
Nifetos.The plant is 60 cm in height, bloom in late May, blooms a week or two.Flower is 10 cm tall, elegant goblet-shaped, with a nice interception in the middle perianth.Painted in a milky white color.The bottom and yellow anthers.
Spring Song.Bright red, with a pink tinge, dull outside, the bottom light blue with yellow anthers dark purple.Beautiful cup-shaped form with a slightly curved outer tepals.
Helen Rubinstein.The plant is 65 cm tall, flowers one to two weeks in May.Flowers outside the tangerine-Orange high, with a silvery tint, inside the red-and-tangerine, flower hexagon center, yellow stamens light yellow, flower height of 8 cm.