Edible mushrooms

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Mushrooms

Mushrooms, which are fit for human consumption, are divided into edible and conditionally edible.Edible mushrooms do not contain toxic substances, have a pleasant smell, taste and do not cause feelings of bitterness. Edible fungi do not require special processing before eating, they should not be boiled, soaked, enough clean and scalded with boiling water.

Agaricus campestris (Agaricus campestris), or meadow mushroom or fungus Pecheritsa

category II.This kind of mushroom (Fig.) Is growing among the grass, meadows, stubble fields, pastures, wherever there is fertile manured soil.It can also be found in the ditches at an average strip fields in the south of Russia.Collect it can be from May to October.Usually it grows in large groups.

Fig.Agaricus campestris (Agaricus campestris), or meadow mushroom, or Pecheritsa

hat meadow mushroom in the flat, white, silky to the touch.Sometimes it covered with gray scales.The diameter of the cap can be up to 12 cm. The young mushroom cap can be spherical.Leg - c

ylindrical, 4-8 cm high, sometimes extended to the grounds.Smooth to the touch, white.At the bottom of the leg may have a brown tint.Closer to the cap on the leg mushroom is white plёnchatoe ring.Agaricus smells delicious, "mushroom" smell.With elastic, white flesh, turning pink on the cut, mushroom is excellent for soups and side dishes.Used in salted and pickled form.

field Champignon (Agaricus arvensis)

Mushroom category III.Grows in the coniferous forests of the foothills, loves mountain spruce.Collect possible from June to October.Silky to the touch cap mushroom in a field (Fig.) Can be white or cream.

Fig.Agaricus Field (A garicus arvensis)

If the pressure on the bonnet, it will turn yellow.In the center of the cap can be bump.The young mushroom cap has a ball shape and then straightens up and grows up to 5-15 cm in diameter.The stem has a cylindrical shape, slightly thickened to the base, it is easily separated from the cap.leg length is 6-15 cm. On the leg closer to the cap is formed by a large hanging ring.The flesh is dense, white, yellow as the maturation of the fungus.It has a bright anise odor.Excellent taste and high nutritional value mushroom field allow to cook many meals out of it.Use fresh (cook for 10 minutes), salted and pickled.

Agaricus Bitorquis (Agaricus bitorquis)

Mushroom II category.This type of mushroom grows on a tree felling, cuttings, along the roads.Collect it can be from May to November.Hat in the meadow mushroom (Fig.) Is flat, white, naked.The diameter of the cap can be up to 12 cm. The young mushroom cap can be spherical.Leg - white, cylindrical, 4-8 cm high, sometimes extended at the bottom.Closer to the cap on the stem of mushroom are two large white plёnchatyh ring.It has excellent taste.It is used fresh (boiled for 10 minutes), pickled.

Fig.Agaricus Bitorquis (A garicus bitorquis)

forest Champignon (Agaricus sylvaticus)

Mushroom II category.It grows in coniferous forests from July to November.One of the most common fungi Russia (Fig.).

Fig.Forest Champignon (Agaricus sylvaticus)

often grows on anthills.The color of the cap varies over the life of the fungus from light ocher to cinnamon-colored, then it becomes light brown with brown scales.Spherical cap in young mushrooms becomes convex, then flat-prostrate.The diameter of the cap of this mushroom is 40-90 mm.Leg - off-white, smooth, cylindrical, 12 cm in height.Solid leg is found only in young mushrooms.In the mature fungus stalk appears narrow cavity through which the cap can be easily separated from the stem.Closer to the cap on the stem is plёnchatoe ring.At the site of the incision may be red pulp.The smell of bland, taste - excellent.

dark red Champignon (Agaricus haemorrhoidarius)

Mushroom IV category.It grows in mountain spruce forests of the European part of the country, he likes calcareous soil.The color of the cap varies over the life of the fungus from light ocher to cinnamon-colored, then it becomes light brown.On the hat appreciable thick brown flakes.Spherical cap in young mushrooms becomes convex, then flat-prostrate.Leg - fleshy, grayish, smooth, cylindrical.Closer to the cap on the stem is plёnchatoe ring.At the site of the incision may be red pulp.One of the most nutritious fungi.It is used in food in fresh, pickled and dried form (Fig.).

Fig.Agaricus dark red (A garicus haem orrhoidarius)

Agaricus bisporus (Agaricus bisporus)

Mushroom II category.A rare fungus, found in forest, Siberia parks.Dislikes grassy places.Rounded cap 4-8 cm with curved edges

1 may be three colors: white, cream, brown.On the hat noticeable thin flakes of the same shade.The cylindrical stem has a distinct ring.The smell and taste of a specific fungus (Fig.).Perfect for any food.

Fig.Agaricus bisporus (A garicUS bisporus)

Boletus (Boletus edulis), or white fungus pine

Recognized as "the king of mushrooms."It is considered especially valuable trophy from mushroom pickers.Mushroom I category.Scrumptious, is suitable for cooking all kinds of dishes.Most often it grows in mountain spruce forests of the European part of Russia and Siberia, but can occur in mixed forests of Western Siberia.The young Borovik hat white, darkening with age to brown and dark brown.Light fuzz in young mushrooms disappear soon.Semicircular cap becomes convex, and in mature mushrooms - prdushkovidnoy.The dimensions of the cap - 6-25 cm in diameter.White or creamy leg of bochonkovidnoy turns into a cylindrical and can reach 20 cm in height.On the stem emerges clearly reticulum (Fig.).

Fig.Boletus (Boletus edulis), or white fungus pine

has a pronounced mushroom smell, pleasant taste.The flesh is hard and white, which makes it suitable for billets.It contains vitamins and antibiotics.Used in fresh, pickled, salted form.

White mushroom shape birch (Boletus edulis f. Betulicola)

One variety Borovik.Mushroom I category.Very tasty and valuable fungus.It grows in the northern regions of the European part and Siberia.He loves birch forests.

fleshy cushion-hat light brown rests on a solid leg bochonkoobraznoy whitish.At the bottom of the stem pronounced mesh pattern (Fig.).As boletus, mushroom has a pleasant odor, but practically no raw taste.Good fried, boiled, canned.

Fig.White mushroom shape birch (Boletus edulis f. Betulicola)

White mushroom shape mesh (Boletus edulis f. Reticu l atus )

Mushroom I category.A common variety of the Caucasus white fungus.He loves oak forests.It grows all summer.It has cushion hat cream, coffee and beige color with a grayish tinge.On a white-brownish cylindrical stem seen a distinct mesh pattern.Below see small fluff (Fig.).

Fig.White mushroom shape mesh (Boletus edulis f. Reticulatus)

Through thick white pulp is suitable for drying, but especially tasty fried.He is the most fragrant in the dried form.Also, it is marinated, it can be used fresh.It has a pleasant smell of the mushroom.

White mushroom shape dark bronze (Boletus edulis f. Aereus)

Mushroom I category.It grows in the Caucasus, in oak, hornbeam, beech, chestnut forests from June to October.Cushion-cap reaches 5-20 cm in diameter, very dark in color, with high humidity a bit slimy, shiny, when the weather is dry and velvety matt.The leg is always a little lighter than the cap.On the whole leg visible mesh pattern, darkening the bottom.Young tuber-mushroom stem, in the growth process, it is drawn (Fig.).

Fig.Boletus edulis, form dark bronze (Boletus edulis f. Aereus)

has a pronounced mushroom smell, but the taste has not.The flesh is hard and white.Suitable for any kind of processing.It is used in food in fried and boiled, as well as pickled and salted forms.

ache brown-yellow (Boletus appendiculatus), or rooted boletus, boletus mushroom red

category II.Delicious mushroom of boletus family.It grows in deciduous forests of the Caucasus.Sometimes found on calcareous soils of the Far East.It has cushion brown hat from 3 to 15 cm in diameter.When moisture hat a little slimy, shiny when dry.Yellow-brown leg covered in the upper third of the mesh pattern, reaches 5-15 cm in height.Young tuber-mushroom stem, in the growth process, it is drawn.To cut yellow flesh turns blue (Fig.).

Fig.Ache brown-yellow (Boletus appendiculatus), or rooted boletus, boletus reddish

has no odor.

rooting fehtnera (Boletus fechtneri)

Mushroom category III.As rooting brownish-yellow, love forests of the Caucasus.It grows from June to September.The cap is different silver-brown-white color.Leg, tuber-young mushrooms, pulled at maturity, covered with mesh in the upper third of the yellow color, and the bottom - red-brown.Pale red flesh on the cut quickly turns blue (Fig.).

Fig.Rooting fehtnera (Boletus fechtneri)

rooting has no special smell.

rooting Royal (Boletus regius), or royal boletus mushroom

category II.Beautiful and delicious mushroom common in deciduous forests of the Caucasus, is less common in the Far East.Collect possible from June to September.Cushion shines after the rain hat, painted in dark pink, red or purple-red color.Very thick leg bochonkovidnaya young mushrooms in maturity takes the form of clubs, ocher-brown with a grid pattern in the upper third.At the bottom of the leg is often covered with dark red dots.Yellow flesh turns blue in the notch (Fig.).

Fig.Rooting Royal (Boletus regius), boletus or royal

Suitable for any kind of processing.

rooting semi-white (Boletus impolitus)

Mushroom category III.Delicious mushroom of boletus family, grows in the central and southern zone.The characteristic hat cushion ocher-yellow-beige color covered with rusty-red spots.The leg is longer than the normal leg Borovik down a bit thickened, yellow, sometimes with a red tint in the lower third (Fig.).

Fig.Ache semi-white (Boletus impolitus)

has an unpleasant odor similar to the smell of iodoform, so often unjustly pickers do not pay attention to it.However, to get rid of the smell of easy pre-mushroom decoction.

Mokhovikov green (Xerocomus subtomentosus), or Pestretzoff, podmoshnik Reshetnikov

Mushroom II category.It occurs in forest clearings of the European part of Russia, on the edges of forests of the Urals, Urals, Siberia, is growing at the edges of roads in the Caucasus and the Far East.He loves moss and oak forests.Collect possible from June to November.Cap in Mokhovikov green different dark olive-yellowish color and do not remove the skins.Bent edge as maturation omitted.The shape of the cap - cushion-convex, fleshy.At the touch of velvet hat, but it can be covered with cracks in times of drought.Stem up to 10 cm tall, curved, cylindrical shape, yellow or copper-brown, from the cap does not come off and has a ribbed surface.Light flesh may turn blue on the cut (Fig.).Pleasant fruity smell, taste in fried and boiled form.

Fig.Mokhovikov green (Xerocomus subtomentosus), or Pestretzoff, podmoshnik Reshetnikov

Mokhovikov Red (Xerocomus spadiceus)

Mushroom II category.It grows in the forests of Siberia and the European part of Russia.From Mokhovikov different green brown red hat.Leg fat, net (Fig.).

Fig.Mokhovikov

Red Delicious and nutritious mushroom.Particularly useful for drying.

Mokhovikov reddish (Xerocomus rubellus)

Mushroom IV category.A rare subspecies of the flywheel occurs in the Far East from July to October, rarely - in the central part of Russia.It features a matte red hat, red leg, dotted with reddish scales (Fig.).

Fig.Mokhovikov reddish

Mokhovikov powdery (Xerocomus pulverulentus), or powdered with the flywheel

Mushroom category III.It is found in the mixed forests of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus.It has olive-brown or olive-yellow-brown domes.Bent edge as maturation omitted.At the touch of velvet hat, sometimes - as if made of fine fibers, 4-5 cm leg, up to 7 cm tall, cylindrical shape of the cap does not come off..The color of the legs - a rusty brown.Sometimes it has a reddish plaque on the bottom part.Yellow flesh on the cut may turn blue (Fig.).

Fig.Mokhovikov powdery (Xerocomus pulverulentus), or powdered with the flywheel

Mokhovikov spotted (Xerocomus chrysenteron)

Mushroom category III.This kind Mokhovikov found in the forests of the European part of Russia and in the Maritime Territory.His time - from July to October.The cap may be brown, reddish, ocher-grayish.Clearly visible pattern of cracks and Veins.Foot light yellow at the bottom of the bright red hue.Leg motley Mokhovikov dotted with small reddish scales.The flesh may turn blue when the notch (Fig.).

Fig.Mokhovikov spotted

well both in salty and fresh and dried forms.

mokruhu purple (Gomphildius rutilus)

Mushroom IV category.It grows in coniferous forests.Collect can from July to November.It features a yellow-brown or wine red hat.The young mushroom cap has the form of a blunt cone, and then becomes convex and flat.In the center of the cap forms a small fleshy bump.Cap shines when the weather is dry to the touch adhesively-mucosa.The cylindrical leg, tapering to the base, reaches 10 cm in height, has a yellowish-brown color (Fig.).

Fig.Mokruhu purple (Gomphildius rutilus)

clearly felt the longitudinal fibers.Young mushrooms closer to the cap has dried purple ring disappears with age.It has a pleasant taste.

mokruhu Pine (Gomphildius g l utinosus)

Mushroom IV category.It is found in the coniferous forests of the European part of Russia and Siberia.Collecting can be in late summer.Has a slightly depressed in the center, outstretched hat, beautiful chocolate color, sometimes streaked with violet hue.Leg cylindrical form covered with mucus (Fig.).

Fig.Mokruhu Pine (Gomphildius glutinosus)

Young mushrooms slimy ring can be seen - the rest of the private slime covered.These balances are sometimes there and at the edges of the cap.It is best to marinate it.

mokruhu pink (Gomphildius roseus)

Mushroom IV category.It is found in the pine forests of the Urals and Siberia.Usually it grows near Kozlyakov.Collecting can be in August, September, October.It differs slightly convex bonnet bright pink.Wavy edges are curved.Color in the process of maturation may fade.At the touch of a hat adhesive.From the private covered on the leg remains the trail - an undulating circle.Leg pinkish-brownish color is not uniform (Fig.).

Fig.Mokruhu pink (Gomphildius roseus)

Clitocybe anise (C / itocybe odora), or fragrant Clitocybe

Mushroom IV category.A little-known fungus.It refers to the autumn mushrooms.It has a convex, with which wrapped the edges of the hat, which is a mature fungus is becoming concave in the center, grayish-green color.Leg, 1 cm thick, of the same color as the cap, smooth.The fungus has a distinct smell of anise.The flesh is pale, watery (Fig.).

Fig.45. anise Clitocybe (Clitocybe odora), or fragrant Clitocybe

honey agaric summer (Kuchneromyces mutabilis)

Mushroom IV category.Honey agaric fungus parasitic on wood.He likes moisture and shade.It grows abundant groups on the stumps, rotten wood.It appears in May and grows until October.Unusually widespread throughout Russia.Honey agaric summer hat has a thin, convex in young individuals, and flat at the ripe mushrooms, brown.After a rain hat with a red-brown color.The edges of the cap is very thin.In the middle - a blunt tubercle.Leg thin and hollow inside, top white, close to the mycelium - dark brown.In the upper third - flaky ring of yellow-brown color.Under the scaly leg ring (Fig.).

Fig.Honey agaric summer (Kuchneromyces mutabilis)

mushroom has a pleasant smell of fresh wood.In the food suitable only hats.Suitable for soups, sauces, marinades.

Armillaria mellea (Armillariella me / lea), or a real honey agaric mushroom

category III.Mushroom, widespread throughout Russia.It grows in the fall, unlike opёnka summer, she loves and living trees.Hat young mushroom is shaped like a ball, as the maturation becomes a plano-convex edges and straighten, in the center of a small hillock.Color can be a gray-yellow or muddy brown.The young mushroom cap to distinguish the thin flakes of brown, disappearing with age.a.b.Attention!