Conditionally edible fungi

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Mushrooms

Conditionally edible mushrooms can be weakly toxic, may have an unpleasant odor or bitter taste, t. E. Contain harmful substances, however, they are suitable for use in certain food after processing.Most often conditionally edible mushrooms are boiled before cooking to remove they contain toxic substances.

Lopactik curly (Helvella crispa)

peculiar fungus that grows on forest edges and roadsides throughout the European part of Russia.Cap up to 5 cm in diameter consists of two or four "blades" of light-yellow color.The edges of the cap considerably wavy, hanging freely, at least - adherent to the leg.Thickish leg up to 8 cm in height may be slightly curved.On whitish stalk clearly visible deep vertical grooves (Fig.).

Fig.Lopastnik curly (Helvetia crispa)

At the bottom of the leg is extended.The flesh is not distinctive odor or taste.Before cooking mushrooms necessary boil.

Mushroom IV category.

gyromitra ordinary (Gyromitara esculenta)

extended to the whole territory of Russia fungus often found

in areas of forest fires.The cap is shaped like the wrong ball, spotted by wrinkles and folds.The young mushroom cap chocolate brown, but as it brightens maturation.Thick low leg has a cylindrical shape.On the leg is clearly visible longitudinal grooves.The color of the legs - white, yellow, rarely reddish.Whitish, if flesh wax is odorless and tasteless.Before preparing the mushroom must boil for at least 15 minutes, then poured broth (Fig.).

Fig.Gyromitra ordinary (Gyromitara esculenta)

Attention!The lines contain a toxin giromitrin, which does not disappear even after prolonged boiling.Some researchers attribute gyromitra to poisonous mushrooms!

real Morel (Morchella esculenta), or morel common

One of the first mushroom growing from March to April.A common fungus in the temperate zone.It occurs in forests, clearings in the parks.She loves the sun.Collect possible in the late spring.Hiding under the bushes in the meadows.The cap color of leaves, ocher, gray, mushroom hides from view.Hollow inside, it has a ovoid shape and extends to a diameter of 7 cm.The edges of the cap rooted to the foot.The entire surface is covered with the cap cells, similar to a honeycomb.Plump leg has a cylindrical shape, the young Stipe whitish, at the mature - yellow-brown.The white flesh has a pleasant smell.Before cooking the mushroom must be boiled for at least 10-15 minutes, drain the broth (Fig.).

Fig.Morel real (Morchella esculenta), or morel common

conical Morel (Morchella conica), or smarzhok

occurs throughout Russia, in forests, forest edges.He loves the old conflagration.Collect possible in the late spring.Brown hat is shaped like elongated cone.The edges adherent to the leg.The hat is covered with cells in a grid.Thick low leg has a cylindrical shape, narrowing at the base.leg color is whitish-yellowish.The white flesh is not distinctive odor and taste.Before cooking you must boil for at least 10-15 minutes, pour the broth (Fig.).

Fig.Conical Morel (Morchella conica), or smarzhok

high Morel (Morchella elata)

is found in the mountains of the Urals, Altai, the Caucasus.He likes grassy edge.It grows in small colonies.Olive-brown hat is shaped like elongated cone.The hat is covered with sharp Highlights cells in the form of the grid.Thick very low leg has a cylindrical shape, narrowing at the base.On the leg stand out clearly grooves.Colour whitish legs.The white flesh is not distinctive odor and taste (Fig.).

Fig.High Morel (Morchella elata)

Before cooking you must boil for at least 10-15 minutes, drain the broth.

Cap Smorchkova (Verpa bohemica)

fungus is widespread throughout the territory of Russia, prefers deciduous forests, lit clearing.Collect can spring.Cap up to 5 cm in height

has the shape of a wide bell, like "hat" worn on the leg.Hats from the legs is difficult to separate.The entire surface of the cap is covered with longitudinal wrinkles.Color hats from yellow-brown to ocher-brown.Inside the white hat.High stalk is cylindrical, downward extension.White leg of a young mushroom is covered with small scales.The maturity of the hat becomes yellow.The thin, waxy flesh if not distinctive odor and taste.Before cooking you must boil for at least 10-15 minutes, drain the broth (Fig.).

Fig.Cap Smorchkova (Verpa bohemica)

considered conditionally edible mushrooms.

Polyporus squamosus (Polyrogus squamosus)

common in temperate zones throughout Russia fungus.It grows on the wood of fruit, rarely deciduous trees.It appears at the beginning of the summer.It has a wide, up to 60 cm, cream-colored hat, covered with large brown scales.Thin edge of the cap tucked inside.Thick low leg painted in whitish color, at the bottom turns into black.Whitish flesh has a pleasant taste and smell of flour.In the food fit only young fruiting bodies (Fig.).

Fig.Polyporus squamosus (Polyporus squamosus)

Mushroom IV category.

Dubovik Kehl (Boletus queleti)

extended to the Caucasus and the Far East the fungus.It grows in deciduous forests.Collect possible from May to October.Chestnut-brown cap with a diameter of 15 cm has a rounded-shape cushion.In his youth, velvety surface of the cap, with age it becomes dry and matte.High stem has a cylindrical shape, often thickened in the lower third.The color of the legs yellowish-brown (Fig.).

Fig.Dubovik Kehl (Boletus queleti)

yellowish flesh is odorless.Before cooking you must boil for at least 10-15 minutes, drain the broth.

Mushroom II category.

Dubovik speckled (Boletus erythropus)

A common almost throughout the European part of Russia fungus sometimes found in Western Siberia.Prefers neighborhood oak and beech.It grows all summer and autumn.Dark brown cap up to 20 cm in diameter has a rounded-shape cushion.In his youth, velvety surface of the cap, with age it becomes dry and matte.High stem has a cylindrical shape, often thickened in the lower third.The color of the legs - a yellowish-red.The foot is covered with conspicuous red small scales (Fig.).

Fig.Dubovik speckled (Boletus erythropus)

yellowish flesh is odorless.Before cooking you must boil for at least 10-15 minutes, drain the broth.

Mushroom II category.

suillellus luridus (Boletus luridus), or poddubnik, Dubovik ordinary

A common almost throughout the European part of Russia fungus is rare in Western Siberia.Prefers neighborhood oak and beech.Sometimes there is in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it grows near the birches.It grows from May to October.Olive-brown cap with a diameter of 20 cm has a rounded-shape cushion.In his youth, velvety surface of the cap, with age it becomes dry and matte.High stem has a cylindrical shape, often thickened in the lower third.legs color - yellow-brown.

leg covered with a distinct mesh pattern (Fig.).

Fig.Suillellus luridus (Boletus luridus), or poddubnik, Dubovik ordinary

yellowish flesh is odorless.Before cooking you must boil for at least 10-15 minutes, drain the broth.

Mushroom II category.

lactifluus vellereus (Laetarius vellereus)

extended to the entire territory of the Russian mushroom.Families grows from July to October.Broad hat young mushrooms is flat, with depressed center for mature - funnel.Edge podvёrnut down.Painted white, as they mature mushroom hat yellow and can be covered with brown spots.Thick white short leg has a shape of a cylinder.The white flesh has no special smell.Milky white and acrid juice.After boiling for 2-3 days and boiling for about 30 minutes is suitable for pickling (Fig.).

Fig.Lactifluus vellereus (Lactarius vellereus)

fungus belongs to the category IV.

volnushki pink (Laetarius torminosus), or Moths

fungus grows throughout the European part of Russia, it is often found in Western Siberia.He prefers neighborhood birch fungus often grows families from July to October.Reddish-pink hat up to 12 cm in diameter has podvёrnuty pubescent edge.At the touch of a hat similar to wool.Leg to 7 cm tall cylindrical shape, one color with a cap.Young mushroom stem as a hat, covered with fuzz, but the maturity it becomes bare (Fig.).

Fig.Volnushki pink (Lactarius torminosus), or Moths

The loose flesh has a faint resinous smell.Milky white and acrid juice.After a long and careful boiling is only suitable for pickling.Mushroom II category.

Lactarius flexuosus (Lactarius flexuosus)

common in central Russia fungus.It grows in forests and clearings from mid-summer until September.Prefers neighborhood birch or aspen.Pinkish-gray or brownish-gray hat is shaped like a shallow crater.Edge bent inward, wavy.On the hat much weaker circular zone.Thick leg to 9 cm tall cylindrical shape and colored in the same color as the cap.The white flesh has a spicy scent.After a thorough soaking and boiling is suitable for pickling (Fig.).

Fig.Lactarius flexuosus (Lactariusflexuosus)

Mushroom category III.

Lactarius rufus (Lactarius rufus)

occurs in wet pine forests throughout the European part of Russia during the summer and autumn, loves marshland.Cap up to 8 cm in diameter in young mushrooms plano-convex, in the center - a conical mound.In mature mushroom cap takes the form of a wide funnel with tubercle inside.Color caps - red-brown.Sometimes gray molds.Thin legs up to 12 cm in height has a cylindrical shape and the same color as the hat.Pale-yellow flesh has an unpleasant odor (Fig.).

Fig.Lactarius rufus (Lactarius rufus)

acrid milky juice.After a thorough soaking and boiling is suitable for pickling.Mushroom IV category.

Russula nigricans (Russula nigricans)

grows in pine forests in the temperate zone.The cap is 16 cm in diameter.Young mushroom light fawn or gray-brown cap has a convex shape.In mature cap becomes convex and prostrate in the middle of the concave noticeable, the color changes to dark brown.Thick leg to 7 cm tall cylindrical shape and has the same color as the cap.If the leg press, it turns black, for the fungus and its name.The white flesh has a sweet taste.After a thorough soaking and boiling is suitable for pickling.When salting is black (Fig.).

Fig.Russula nigricans (Russula nigricans)

Mushroom IV category.

gray Clitocybe (Clitocybe nebularis)

Occurs throughout the European part of Russia, Siberia and the Primorsky region, often in the form of a "fairy ring".Grows in late summer.Cap 15 cm diameter has a convex shape with the bulge in the middle.The young mushroom cap is wrapped edge, painted in purple or grayish color.Mature mushrooms have a hat brown-gray color, the edge of the cap is broken.High whitish leg slightly extended to the ground.On stem visible mealy plaque (fig.).

Fig.Gray Clitocybe (Clitocybe nebularis)

firm flesh has a fruity smell, at least - flour, and a pleasant taste.Before cooking requires boiling.

Mushroom IV category.

Mlechnik ordinary (Lactarius trivialis), or Gladyshev

is found in the pine forests of the north of European Russia in the late summer and until October, he likes damp places.Cap up to 15 cm in diameter in young mushrooms is flat in the center - a small recess.The color of the cap varies from lead to violet-gray or gray-red-yellow.Thin leg to 8 cm in height has a cylindrical shape and the same color as the cap (Fig.).

Fig.Mlechnik ordinary (Lactarius trivialis), or Gladyshev

sometimes streaked with yellow.Milky juice of bitter and unpleasant smelling.After a thorough soaking and boiling is suitable exclusively for salting.After brining yellow.

Mushroom II category.

lactarius vietus (Lactarius vietus), or wading volnushki

occurs in wet birch throughout the European part of Russia in August and September, loves marshland.Wet and sticky cap up to 8 cm in diameter plano-convex, the center has a funnel-shaped recess.The color of the cap - purple-gray.Sometimes pours brown.Thin leg 11 cm height has a cylindrical shape and the same color as the cap (Fig.).

Fig.Lactarius vietus (Lactones vietus), or wading volnushki

whitish flesh has a spicy taste.After a thorough soaking and boiling is suitable for pickling.Mushroom category III.

fragilis Russula (Russula fragilis)

occurs in wet pine forests on the entire territory of Russia in August and September.Wet hat to 5 cm in diameter, flat, in the center of a small hillock.The color of the cap - purple-red.Sometimes casts greenish.Thin leg to 11 cm in height and has a cylindrical shape is colored in pink (Fig.).

Fig.Fragilis Russula (Russula fragilis)

white flesh has a tart taste.After a thorough soaking and boiling is suitable exclusively for salting.Mushroom IV category.

Lactarius real, or raw (Lactarius resimus (Fr.) Fr.)

fungus grows in birch or mixed forests with an admixture of birch from July to September.

mushroom caps is quite large, with a diameter of 20 cm. The original cap is white, round-shaped convex or flat.Then it becomes funnel-hat, with a wrapped down the hairy edge, slightly yellow color with an almost invisible watery areas.In wet weather, the surface of the cap rather slimy.

Pulp mushroom dense, white color with a specific scent.Milky juice of the mushroom and white, pungent and bitter taste.On contact with air milky sap becomes sulfur-yellow.

plates of the fungus are wide, rare, top-down on the stem of white or cream-colored, yellowish edges of plates.

stipe up to 5 cm in length, rather thick, white.When ripe, it becomes hollow (Fig.).

Fig.Lactarius real, or raw (Lactarius resimus (Fr.) Fr.)

fungus belongs to the category I of mushrooms.In the food used in the salty, sometimes pickled.

Lactarius yellow, or yellow podgruzd (Lactarius scrobiculatus (Fr.))

fungus grows mainly in the birch, but also found in coniferous forests.Fruiting from July to September.

mushroom cap is 20 cm in diameter.It is quite fleshy, wet, wet weather when it becomes mucous, sticky.The shape of the hat first round convex, then becomes prostrate, funnel-.The edges of the cap wrapped down and shaggy.

surface cap of golden-yellow color, in addition, it is located softly pronounced dark concentric zones.

Flesh white fungus, the touch becomes yellow.In the section allocated acrid milky juice of white color that turns yellow in the air.

plates downstream from the fungus on the stem, white or cream color.Spore print yellow.Spores spherical, melkoborodavchatye.

foot fungus in a short length of 4-5 cm and a thickness of 3 cm, pale yellow with small dark spots.Lower down the leg tapers (Fig.).

Fig.Lactarius yellow, or yellow podgruzd (Lactarius scrobiculatus (Fr.))

Mushroom I category.It is used in pickled or salted form.

Lactarius oak, oak or saffron (Lactarius insuisus (Fr.) Fr.)

fungus grows mainly under the oak or hazel on humus loam from July to September.

hat Gruzdev oak fleshy, with a diameter up to 17 cm. The young mushrooms ploskookrugloy it then becomes a funnel-irregular shape with wavy curved edges.

surface hats bare, yellowish-orange, with concentric zones.

Pulp mushroom dense, white color, which becomes yellow on the cut.Milky juice is white, the color does not change in the air.

plates are descending on the leg, first white, then pale ocher.Spore print yellow.Spores spherical, bristly.

leg length of 10 cm to 2 cm thick, white with yellow spots.When ripe, it becomes a hollow stipe (Fig.).

Fig.Lactarius oak, oak or saffron (Lactarius insuisus (Fr.) Fr.)

Mushroom Category II, used as food only in salt form.

Lactarius bluish or dog agaric (Lactarius reprasentaneus Britz.)

fungus grows mainly under the birch and willow in damp places.It also occurs in deciduous and coniferous forests.It grows in small groups or in individual copies in July and August.Quite rare.

hat lactarius repraesentaneus its form is very similar to the present hat Gruzdev.It yellowish, moreover, there are arranged protruding hairs.On the edge of the hat shaggy.

fungus flesh is firm, white and bitter taste.Smell nice, mushroom.Milky juice of white fungus, it becomes purple when exposed to air.

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