inedible fungi

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Mushrooms

Recall that all the mushrooms are divided into three groups: edible, inedible and poisonous.

Inedible mushrooms - those mushrooms that have too bitter or pungent, unpleasant smell and look unappetizing.

thus inedible mushrooms can be identified by the following characteristics:

1) an unpleasant odor;

2) unpleasant taste;

3) small fruiting bodies;

4) the specificity of the place of growth;

5) hardness pulp;

6) scales, spines or other growths on the fruit body.

By inedible mushrooms are among the tubular gall fungus mushroom and pepper.

Gall mushroom (Tylopilus felleus)

Gall mushroom is inedible, because it has a very bitter taste and probably poisonous.It grows from July to September on sandy soil in coniferous forests, sometimes rotten, overgrown with moss and stumps on the basis of tree trunks.

Externally similar to the white fungus and berёzovikom.However, to distinguish it from the edible mushrooms is easy enough.On the leg he had a dark mesh pattern, dirty pink tubular layer, bitter

and turning pink flesh (Fig.).

Fig.Gall mushroom (Tylopilus felleus)

Pepper mushroom (Suillus piperatus)

Pepper mushroom is inedible because of its hot pepper taste.It grows in coniferous forests.It has similarities with the butter mushrooms, green and Mokhovikov Kozlyakov.Recognize this fungus can be on-bitingly bitter pulp and yellowish-red tubular layer (Fig.).

Fig.Pepper Mushroom

collybia veretenogaya (Collybia fusipes (Fr.) Quel.)

Fungus grows near the roots of deciduous trees, near the stubs or stumps.Fruiting from June to October.

plano mushroom caps with a diameter of 4 to 10 cm, with the hill, reddish or reddish-brown.The surface of the cap is dry, naked, in addition, it often cracks in the longitudinal and radial direction.

The flesh is thin, thick, yellowish, but paling to whitish.Pronounced taste and no odor.

plates either free or adnate to the stem, whitish, frequent, with pink spots.

spore print white, egg-shaped spores.

Leg fusiform, thick, Tapered-branching below.The length of the legs 10 to 20 cm thick and 2 cm (see Fig.).

Fig.Collybia veretenogaya (Collybiafusipes (Fr.) Quel.)

Mushroom category III.In the food used only cap in pickled or fresh.

lactarius helvus (Lactarius helvus)

considered poisonous, but this issue was not clarified until the end.Mushroom grows from July to October.The shape, size and location of growth it is similar to Lactarius rufus, but has a light hat, on which there is no bump.The fungus can be identified by colorless not caustic Milky juice, as well as the smell of coumarin (Fig.).

Fig.Lactarius helvus

Ognёvka alder (pholiota alnicola (fr.) Sing.)

Similar to Armillaria mellea.Families grows on stumps of deciduous trees from August to October.The hat convex with tubercle.First, pale yellow to greenish edge and the middle of a brownish tinge.The plates are pale yellowish, later olive-buff.Leg thin fiber, the same color as the hat.The flesh has an unpleasant odor and bitter taste (Fig.).

Fig.Ognёvka alder

Valuy false (Hebeloma crustuliniforme)

grows on edges of deciduous forests, but it can also be found in the park area in the period from August to September.Cap convex, dirty-yellow, sometimes brown.The plates are first whitish, then yellowish clay.Foot to the bottom thickened without a ring, scaly, the same color as the hat.The flesh has a bitter taste and unpleasant smell.According to some reports, this fungus belongs to the poisonous (Fig.).

Fig.Valuy false

Scleroderma verrucosum (Scleroderma verrucosum Pers)

This mushroom can be found from August to September along the roads and in the dry pine forests.The shape and size similar to the Scleroderma citrinum, but its shell thicker, scaly.The interior of the purple-black with white veins.

To avoid poisoning, should only collect those mushrooms that do not cause doubts.You can not cut the ripe, wormy and heavily damaged by rodents and slugs copies.Harvested mushrooms need to immediately process, or they can come into disrepair.Salted and marinated mushrooms can not be stored in galvanized and glazed earthenware dish.

Umbrella comb (Lepiota cristata)

It grows in meadows, forest edges, meadows and pastures throughout the country in the period from September to October.In some European countries it is considered poisonous.

Young mushroom cap bell-shaped, in mature - with convex tubercle.Whitish, in the center of the brown, with brown scales, which are arranged in concentric circles.The plates are white.Foot flat.To base a little thickened, hollow, or slightly yellowish-red hue, smooth, with white narrow ring.When ripe mushroom ring disappears.The flesh of the fungus is thin, white.It has an unpleasant taste and smell redechny (Fig.).

Fig.Umbrella comb

mycena (Mysena)

occurs everywhere in the deciduous and coniferous litter, good fruit on the rich soils.It grows from early summer to late autumn.There is a large species of

Mitsen, they differ from each other only a thin high leg, and the small size (Fig.).

Fig.Mycena

Tricholoma virgatum (Tricholoma virgatum)

grows in forests of different types from August to October.The shape of the cap varies from the canonical to hemispherical.Cap silver-gray, shiny, scaly in old fungi.Plates from white to grayish.Stem cylindrical.The pulp is grayish-white, has a bitter taste, inexpressive odor (Fig.).

Fig.Tricholoma virgatum

Some researchers recognized poisonous.

pholiota breaking (Pholiota destruens (Brond.) Gill.)

can meet in the autumn on the trunks and stumps of deciduous trees, but it can also appear on the treated wood.Growing, usually singly or in small groups.By type of tall fleshy mushroom.Hat ocher, brown with light brown scales.Plates ocher.Leg bottom is thickened, the color can vary from white to ocher.The fungus has a strong odor.The flesh is white, has a bitter taste (Fig.).

Fig.Pholiota breaking

blewits gray-violet (Tricholoma sdiodes Martin)

grows in deciduous forests in the period from August to September.At the young age of the mushroom cap hemispherical, later prostrate with deepening in the center.The color of the cap is dark gray with a violet hue.The leg is thin, gray-whitish.The flesh of the fungus has a bitter burning taste (Fig.).

Fig.Blewits gray-purple

blewits characterized (Tricholoma sejunctum)

It grows in mixed and coniferous forests in the period from late July to late September.Cap yellow-green, fleshy.It has a conical or hemispherical shape at a young age, she later became prostrate.Plates mushroom cream with yellow spikes.Stem cylindrical, white (Fig.).

Fig.Blewits characterized

Mushroom has flour taste.When cooking the taste is enhanced.

should also know that worm-eaten salted and pickled mushrooms, which for some time kept in galvanized and glazed earthenware dishes are inedible and can be poisoned.

blewits Pine (Tricholoma aestuans (Fr.))

This fungus is found in coniferous forests in late summer and autumn.The cap can be bell-or flat with a recess in the center.Brown, shiny, yellow plate.Foot tall, thin, pale yellow in color with brown fibers.The flesh is whitish or pale yellow, odorless, has a pungent taste (Fig.).

Fig.Blewits spruce

Klavikorona krynochkovidnaya (Clavicorona pyxldata)

grows everywhere on the stumps and rotten wood hardwood.Fruit body strongly branched.At the top of the branches has a serrated edge.Sprigs of yellow color, but if you put pressure on them, they will get a brownish color.The flesh has a mushroom tart, peppery-spicy taste (Fig.).

Fig.Klavikorona krynochkovidnaya

inedible Boletus (Boletus calopus)

is found in coniferous and deciduous forests of oak, mainly on acidic sandy soil, from July to October.

hat light brown, olive, light brown, brown or grayish-brown, smooth, sometimes wrinkled.Leg at a young age bochonkovidnaya, then - clavate.At the top of her lemon-yellow with white fine mesh in the middle - carmine red, the bottom - brown-red, at the base - white.

Flesh is firm, whitish.Has a bitter taste, it does not have a pronounced odor.The fungus is often confused with Satan (Fig.).

Fig.Borovik inedible

comb Silverfish (Lepiota cristata)

This mushroom grows in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests, and in gardens, meadows and pastures in the period from July to October.Cap convex or plano-convex, whitish, covered with brownish-reddish chashuykami.The flesh is white, has an unpleasant taste and has a sharp smell redechnym.The plates were frequent, white.Leg cylindrical ring, hollow, yellowish.Ring white, with the maturation of the fungus disappears (Fig.).

Fig.Silverfish comb

inedible and possibly poisonous.

clathrus ruber (Clathrus ruber)

grows in deciduous forests irregularly.Fruit body of a young mushroom has a spherical shape, covered with three-layer coating.Spongy layer located inside in a grid formation of dome-like shape, without legs, mainly red (Fig.).

Fig.Clathrus ruber

Rizina inflated (Rhizina inflata)

This fungus grows on sandy soil in lit places, often on the burned areas and fireplace in the period from July to October.Fruit body with a convex or wavy dark brown lumpy hymenial layer.The lower surface yellowish with numerous Tapered rhizoids (Fig.).

Fig.Rizina inflated

Giminialny layer - is that part of the fruiting body of fungi, where the spores are formed.Hleb - it sporonosyaschy layer of some fungi.Rhizoids - whisker formation, serving for attachment to the substrate.

peziza notched (Peziza geranda)

Frequently grows on the fireplace in the period from May to September.Fruiting bodies are sessile or on a short stalk.Hymenial brown layer, the outer surface is white.The flesh has a faint odor (Fig.).

Fig.Peziza notched

Geoglossum deceptive (geoglossum cookeianum)

These mushrooms can be found in the abandoned uncultivated meadows and meadows with low grass and sandy rocky soils.Mushrooms growing families, sometimes very large, the main growth time - from August to October.Fruit body geoglossuma clavate, black or dark brown in color, shaped like a language or a spatula, for the fungus is also called the "earthy language" (Fig.).

Fig.Geoglossum deceptive

fruiting body height - from 3 to 7 cm, thickness -. 0.3-0.7 cm The flesh is soft, without clearly marked odor.The fungus inedible.

pear-shaped Raincoat (Lycoperdon pyriforme)

often grows in coniferous and deciduous forests, mostly on decaying stumps, at least on the ground among mosses.Fruit pear-shaped body back, with long, branched white mycelial strands at the base.Sheath white ocher hereinafter.Gleb first white, then olive-green and scarlet, olive or gray-brown, powdery when ripe (Fig.).

Fig.Raincoat pear

Some researchers believe that it may be there until the flesh begins to darken.

spiked Raincoat (Lycoperdon echinatum)

grows in deciduous and coniferous forests on the soil and the forest floor.Fruit globular body with short legs.The inner membrane is thin, whitish, greyish-cream, with a round hole at the top (Fig.).

Fig.Raincoat Raincoat spiked

small (Lycoperdon pusillum)

This grit is typically grows in the steppes, forests, meadows singly and in small groups.Fruit globular body, sometimes tapering.Ekzoperidy thin, whitish, with time - a brownish-yellow, brownish (Fig.).

Fig.Raincoat small warty

Scleroderma (Scleroderma verrucosus)

occurs in pine and deciduous forests.Fruit body hemispherical, sessile.Leathery shell, off-white or yellowish.Gleba initially white with yellow streaks, later - gray-brown (Fig.).

Fig.Scleroderma warty

Gimnopilus beautiful (Gymnopilus junonius)

summer and fall, these mushrooms grow beams on the stumps deciduous trees.Cap in gimnopilusa in youth bright yellow, in age yellow-brown and scaly, fibrous, brownish, with a flat edge, with a diameter of 5 to 15 cm plates of youth yellowish, later -. Rust-brown and jagged, tooth downward.The leg is long and thick, pale yellowish, udlinnёnnaya with leathery ring under the fibrous ring (Fig.).

Fig.Gimnopilus beautiful (Gymnopilus junonius)

The flesh is yellow, very bitter.Some believe isssledovateli poisonous mushroom, as it may cause intoxicating effects.

papillary Lactarius (Lactarius mammosus)

often grows in coniferous forests on sandy soils in the period from August to October.Cap plane or concave-prostrate, often with a hump in the middle, gray-brown, dark brown, dark gray-brown or black-brown, sometimes with a violet hue.The plates were frequent, narrow, yellow.Stem cylindrical, whitish, with time the channel is formed in it.

Flesh whitish cap, a dark-skinned, and stem, reddish reddish, thick, sweetish (Fig.).

Fig.Lactarius papillary