Distillation - gladiolus - Gladiolus L.
klubnelukovichnoe herbaceous plant.In nature, there are about 180 species growing mainly in Southern and Central Africa, in parts of the Mediterranean, Minor and Central Asia.Some 34 species of gladiolus (about nine) grows on
Caucasus, the Crimea, in the mountains of Turkmenistan, in the western regions of the European part of Russia.
history and meaning of culture.Garden shape of gladiolus were only about 150-170 years ago, but during this time a huge number of varieties, and gladiolus began to grow in many countries were displayed.He became a favorite of many gardeners plant.
Gladioli are usually grown in the open ground for cutting, along with it the technique of growing gladioli indoors under artificial light that allows you to have flowering plants in the winter.
gladiolus corms planted in the spring and gave the germ permanently exhausted and replaced by a new, - replacement, which is formed on the parent of the lower parts of the leaves thicken.It lays the kidneys, of which develops escape of
flowering plants is preceded by a long process of laying the rudiments of flowers and inflorescences in the kidneys.When planting the corms in spring in her kidneys are formed only the rudiments of the leaves and stem, and inflorescence has not yet emerged.It is found that the onset of differentiation of flower development coincides with the plant at the three to four true leaves.
shape of inflorescence and flower, as well as the size and color are the most important decorative features.
gladiolus inflorescence - spicate.The number of flowers varies greatly, up to 20-28 in modern
35 varieties.By location inflorescence flowers are single row, double row, regular, two-way, spiral.
Flowers are formed, and then expanded upwards.
Flower gladiolus zygomorphic, t. E. The wrong (through it is possible to draw only one line of symmetry), simple, with a double perianth, consisting of six unequal, fused at the bottom of a short curved tube, bisexual, big stakes.
Growing gladiolus indoors for distillation is fundamentally different from the distillation of tulips and hyacinths.It is, strictly speaking, can not even be called by distillation, as the corm when planting flower bud is not formed like a bulb.Bookmark and escape from the formation of the flower gladiolus occurs during the growth of the plant, so the conditions of cultivation in greenhouses should contribute to this.In low light (less than 6 thousand. Lux) bloom can occur and otstutstvie fresh air will reduce stem strength, warping, which can not be corrected garter.In winter, the crucial relationship of soil temperature and light intensity.In low light, and soil temperature (above 17 ° C) is the germ of a gladiolus flower ceases to evolve and die.
great importance is the preliminary preparation corms, which begins 3 months before planting.From 1 November to mid-December (45 days) they are stored at a temperature of 17 ° C, until January ksschtsa (another 40-45 days) are kept in a bright room with high humidity at 20 ° C.Biochemical processes that occur at this time in corm, escape provide rapid development.Based on 1 m2 planted 60 to 80 corms of the first analysis (diameter of about 3.5 to 4 cm) to a depth of 8 cm, and mulching.The temperature of the soil 36 in the last 90 days is maintained at a level
Fig.Forms inflorescences gladiolus: 1 - single-row;2 - two-row;3 - the next;4 - two-sided;5 -
10-12 ° C, after which the soil temperature is increased to 15 ° C, and temperature - 20 ° C.
The technique of cultivation of gladiolus with additional lighting, which allows to have a flowering gladioli in the winter and early spring months.
For color 8 March recommended the early stages of digging (September 10-15) and landing in the room at the end of November.In addition to natural light after mass germination on 7-8 th day include additional lighting.
for flowering May 1 bulbs are planted in early February, from the middle of the month gives additional lighting.For flowering gladioli to 7 November and New Year tubers stored until the end of June at a temperature of 2-4 ° C, then for 2-4 weeks, subjected to heat treatment - 25-30 ° C at a relative humidity of 80%.planting period for flowering in early November - 15 July - 1 August.For flowering in late December - from 20 September to 1 October.Artificial lighting should be at least 15-16 hours a day iri good ventilation.
for forcing should be used early-flowering varieties.Well showed the following grade: Arabesque, Dixieland, Legacy, a Northern Belle, Gintarelis, Zeus, Oscar White Frosting.
Description vygonochnyh varieties.Arabesque.Plant height is 115 cm, thin, straight line.The inflorescence is 55 cm, the next.Flower 8 cm, corrugated, light raspberry pink with pink-red spot and the border around the edges.
Diksilevd.Plant height of about 120 cm. The inflorescence is 65 cm, 12.5 cm flower, ripple, dull red with yellow spots.
Legacy.130 cm in height, stem robust.The inflorescence is 65 cm, two-row.Flower 13 cm, corrugated, salmon-Roseau-headed, with a white spot.Anthers light purple, 38 white pestle.
a Northern Belle.135 cm in height, inflorescence 65 cm, single-row.Flower 12 cm, corrugated, white.Anthers and pistil white.
Oscar.The plant height of 150 cm. 75 cm inflorescence flower 16 x 13 cm, dark red, the proportion of the broad, flat.
Gintarelis.Plant height is 125 cm, stem robust.The inflorescence is 65 cm, two-row.Flower 13 x 12.5 cm, pale yellow, corrugated.
Zeus.Plant height is 170 cm. Inflorescence a two-row, 90 cm, 26 flowers, and simultaneously open 8 8 colored buds.Flower 14 cm, thick salmon, corrugated.