Mushrooms - quite strange organisms that occupy an intermediate position between the vegetable and animal kingdoms.French botanist XVII.Vella has suggested that mushrooms intentionally created by the devil to disrupt the harmony of nature.Indeed, mushrooms hold many mysteries.One of the secrets with regard to their nutritional properties: among the fungi are many delicious and nutritious species, but there are also inedible, and some pose a serious threat to human life, because they are toxic.For this reason, in some countries, mushroom dishes are not included in the national cuisine: for a long time, people awe-inspiring, causing fear and horror stories about poisoning caused after consumption of forest products.Legends and stories passed down from generation to generation, and the word "mushroom" in the minds of some people associated with the word "death."
in the annals of history preserved is not a complete list of mushroom poisoning victims.It is known that poisonous mushrooms have caused the dea
no means rare are cases of mushroom poisoning in Russia, but our ancestors, being hereditary mushroom pickers, very fond of "forest any beef," and were able to distinguish edible mushrooms from their toxic counterparts.Those who lived in Russia foreigners admired Russian taste of mushrooms, and said that nowhere is there better than them.The Englishman Samuel Collins, guests at the court of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, noted that Russian small deadly mushrooms, edible and varied and better than anywhere else.
Mushrooming in our country and today is considered to be a useful and enjoyable leisure time of many thousands of people of all ages and professions.In addition, it should be noted that the number of poisonous mushrooms is significantly less than useful.
Currently mycology known about 3000 species of fungi, of which only 50 can be considered toxic.Fatal poisoning can be caused by the use of such fungi as a pale toadstool, spring, red amanita pantherina and some inocybe, cortinarius, Govorushko, blewits and entoloma.They are very dangerous because they retain their poisonous properties after soaking, boiling, drying, salting, pickling and other processing methods.To protect yourself from mushroom poisoning, we must learn to recognize them correctly in the first place by their appearance.Therefore, the mushrooms should first study the theory, not to make a mistake in practice.
To avoid poisoning, it is necessary to observe the golden rule of mushroom picker: do not put a strange mushroom in a basket or cart.Even one of the smallest toxic fungus subsequently processed together with edible, can lead to very dire consequences.
Pale toadstool (Amanita phalfoides)
pale grebe (Fig.) - A deadly fungus from the group plate, kind of fly agaric.
Fig.Pale toadstool (Amanita phalloides)
hallmark. hat from 7 to 11 cm in diameter, the color can be white, yellow-brown-olive, pale green.The shape of the first bell-shaped, later plano.In the middle is usually darker, with a silky luster, in wet weather mucous, sometimes with white flakes on the surface.The flesh of the fungus in white, thin, with very slight mushroom odor (sometimes completely without it) and sweet taste.The plates are white, free and frequent.Spore print is white.
foot flat at the base tuberiform-thickened, white, sometimes tinged with yellow, can reach up to 12 cm in length and 15-20 mm in diameter.Around the middle of the legs has plёnchatoe ring - white, striped.The base is surrounded by a white sheath chashkovidnym - Volvo.
locus. pale grebe found in summer and autumn (from June until frost) in deciduous forests - birch, oak forests, more rarely in coniferous plantations.Sometimes it grows singly, but more often in groups, in abundance is in the southern zone of the forest zone.
should remember: unlike poisonous toadstool pale at the base of the legs missing russules thickening and the middle legs no plёnchatogo ring.If death cup falls when pickling in capacity to the fungus, it stands out among them pure white, adhering to the cap plates thin and flabby flesh.
White color, pale grebe can be mistaken for the young mushrooms (common and field).In this case, you should look at the record: from the poisonous mushroom, they are always white, while the mushroom plate light brown, pink or slightly blackish-brownish.In the shorter leg of mushrooms, and most importantly, it is no reason to sacciform vagina.Inexperienced mushroom pickers can be confused with the pale toadstool fungus called "white float".It is characterized by the presence of striped, ribbed edges on the bonnet and the absence of the ring on the stem.
recorded cases when a pale toadstool mistaken for edible caps ringed with brown hat with a pink tinge and silver-white powdery bloom;adherent to the plate first white leg, and then the clay-yellow.On the leg there is a ring, but there is no Volvo.
Young pale toadstool, which the people sometimes called the green fly agaric, can be confused with edible greenfinch, which records a yellowish-green color, without a leg ring and Volvo, the powder is white or light yellow, white spore print.
Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Only one death cup, ranked in the food can cause the death of 3-4 adults.Toxic substances are pale toadstool polypeptides group.This fungus contains several toxic compounds: alpha-amanitin, phalloidin, etc. Fast falloin falloidin poison destroys the cells of the liver and kidneys..Lethal dose for humans phalloidin is only 0.02- 0.03 g amanitin - not less toxic poison, but acts much more slowly.All these dangerous compounds are not destroyed during cooking.
first signs of poisoning pale toadstool may occur after 8-12 hours, but their appearance is not always clear, and therefore can be misleading.The most complete and clearly marked symptoms in 20-40 hours after eating.By the manifestations of toxicity include weakness, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, thirst, cramps, sudden pain in the abdomen and pain in the gastrointestinal tract.On a deeper stage of poisoning observed visual disturbances and blood circulation, there are signs of jaundice, loss of consciousness.Recovery is rare and occurs slowly, while deaths from intoxication pale toadstool up to 90%.
Danger pale toadstool poisoning is that it poisons act slowly toxins affect the liver, the heart, the circulatory system and the brain.Toxins absorbed into the blood, causing irreparable damage in the body.Slow response The danger is that the effects of intoxication, as a rule, almost can not be corrected, and all those measures that would normally help with mushroom poisoning others, before the pale toadstool are powerless.
pale toadstool poisoning - the most heavy.It is enough to swallow a quarter of the cap pale toadstool, to cause fatal poisoning.No kind of cooking do not neutralize the poisons contained in this fungus.The danger is that the toxins affecting the circulatory system, liver, heart and brain are slow and almost unnoticed for 2 days.
Valuy false (Hebeloma crustuliniforme)
Valuy false or worthless fungus (Fig.) - A poisonous mushroom from the kind of plate hebeloma cortinariaceae family.
Fig.Valuy false or horseradish mushroom
hallmark. Cap 3-10 cm in diameter, smooth, yellowish-brown, in the center of a dark, cushion-convex.The flesh is whitish, bitter taste, the smell of horseradish and radish.The plates are yellowish-brownish, notched or adherent, with a rough edge.During wet weather form liquid droplets dry on the spot of dried droplets appear brownish spots.Spore print - yellowish-brown.Leg whitish, light, slabocheshuychataya, young mushrooms solid, mature internally in a hollow, 4-7 cm long, 10-15 mm, base slightly swollen.
locus. Widespread fungus growing throughout August and September in the woods, along roads and in parks.
Toxic substances and signs of poisoning.The fungi of the genus cortinarius contains several little-known poisons.Some cause respiratory failure and asphyxia, and others - motor paralysis.It is very important time to help at the first signs of poisoning: headache, dryness and burning in the mouth, chills, intense thirst, nausea and vomiting.An urgent need to seek professional help and call an ambulance.
inocybe fiber (Inocybe fastigiata)
inocybe fiber - poisonous mushroom of the genus inocybe.Of the 150 species found around the world in different types of forests in our country, it is found about 100 species of inocybe (Fig.).
hallmark. Cap conical or bell-shaped, with a sharply protruding hump, torn on the edge.The diameter reaches 3-8 cm, sometimes visible longitudinal pressed flakes and radial cracks.The color yellow-brownish or dark straw-yellow in the center of a dark, gray or ocher hue.The flesh is white, has an unpleasant odor.The plates are notched, almost free, narrow, at first light, later yellowish or brownish-olive.Foot flat, but sometimes curved, 4-10 cm long, 4-10 mm thick.At a young age leg is light, then darkening, brownish powdery on top, to the bottom hlopevidnocheshuychataya.Spore print brown-ocher.
locus. volokonnitsa.voloknistaya occurs from July to September in the central regions of the European part of Russia, in the south of the Urals and Siberia.It grows in the forests of various types, can live in grassy corners.
Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. This type of mushroom is poisonous because it is present toxin muscarine, at the use of which the first signs of poisoning appear within 12 hours, and in full -. 2 hours in most cases such poisoning, if the time to provide first aid, lead to recovery.However, the use of a large number of fungi can be fatal.
inocybe earthen (Inocybe geophylla)
inocybe earthen - poisonous mushroom of the genus inocybe.Features.Cap 2-3 cm in diameter, at a young age and conical white, when ripe outstretched, on the edge of the crack, silky fiber.There are numerous variations of this fungus with caps of different colors - from pure white to light purple, but most of the earthen cap inocybe slightly pinkish, sometimes yellowish.The flesh is white, almost free of the plate first white and brownish shades acquire as fungus growth.Leg cylindrical in shape, the base slightly thickened, gladkovoloknistaya a length of 2 to 4 cm and 5.2 mm thick, white at the top with muchnistovidnym coating.Spore print is yellowish-brownish.The distinguishing feature is the same as all inocybe - unpleasant odor (Fig.).
locus .Meets inocybe earthen usually in the central regions of the European part of Russia, in the south of the Urals, in Siberia.It grows from July to August in the coniferous and deciduous forests of different types, usually at the edges of roads.
Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Due to the presence in the ground inocybe alkaloid muscarine this species belongs to the poisonous mushrooms.Besides the main symptoms observed in cases of poisoning by muscarine also noted excessive sweating and salivation, indigestion, blurred vision, hallucinations, fits of crying and laughter.At the first signs of intoxication, seek medical advice.When poisoning by muscarine can be assigned to atropine, physostigmine and some other drugs.
inocybe erubescens (lnosube patouillardii)
inocybe erubescens - a rare but deadly poisonous mushroom.It is considered among the most dangerous kind of inocybe (Fig.).
hallmark. hat a young whitish fungus, then it becomes creamy, straw-yellow, and then acquires a reddish tint.The diameter reaches 6-9 cm, in the form initially campanulate, later prostrate, with a central tubercle, the old mushroom cracks.The flesh is white, then reddish, unpleasant taste, with an alcohol odor.The plates were adherent, the young specimens are white, later sulfur-yellow, pink, in old brown mushrooms with reddish spots.The foot at the base slightly swollen, with a hat of the same color, in length up to 7 cm in thickness - 5-10 mm.Spore print ocher-brown.
locus .Inocybe occurs infrequently, lives in coniferous and deciduous (oak) forests, chalk mountains and parks.It appears at the end of May and grows until July in the same places where they feel good mushrooms, caps ringed and some other edible mushrooms.
Muscarine - a toxic substance that is found in Amanita mushrooms in the other - inocybe, fungi of the genus Klitotsibe (Clitocybe) and satanic mushroom.Please be aware that the muscarinic inocybe contains up to 16%, whereas in some types of mushroom the amount is only 0.28%.
Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. intoxication can occur within 15-20 minutes after ingestion of mushrooms, poisoning causes a substance called muscarine.The main symptoms: dizziness and headache, constriction of the pupils and blurred vision, feeling of fever and chills, urge to vomiting, heavy sweating and salivation.Consciousness at muscarine poisoning is usually preserved, but it can be observed slowing of cardiac activity, shortness of breath that accompany asthma.Although death is rare, but failure to provide first aid can lead to circulatory problems and even death in 8-9 hours. If you have time to help, the recovery occurs within days.
Russula burning-corrosive (Russula emetica Fr.)
Mushroom growing singly or in small groups in coniferous and deciduous forests.Often it can be found near the sphagnum bogs.The first mushrooms begin to appear in July and found to late autumn.
Cap up to 10 cm in diameter, at first it is convex, then prostrate, but embedded in the middle.The edges of the bonnet stripes.The cap often purplish-pink or pinkish-red, moist and sticky.
Pulp mushroom brittle, white, with a pleasant smell, but the taste of burning-corrosive.
plates were white, adnate to the stem or free.The old mushroom plate yellowish or grayish color.
stipe up to 8 cm in length and 1.5 cm in thickness.Stem smooth, dense, white with pinkish patches.
Spores almost spherical, spiny.The spore print white mass (Fig.).
Fig.Russula burning-corrosive (Russula emetica Fr.)
is believed that it is toxic due to the presence of muscarine, but some researchers believe it inedible or even edible low taste.
voskovataya Clitocybe (Clitocybe cerussata)
Clitocybe voskovataya or grayish - the popular name of a poisonous mushroom, not less dangerous than mushroom or toadstool pale.It belongs to the genus Clitocybe mushrooms (Klitotsibe), containing more than 250 species.In our country there are about 60 species, most of which, although not very valuable, but quite edible.These include the following types of govorushek:. Fragrant, funnel-shaped, smoky, bulavonogaya etc. Among the poisonous species include Clitocybe voskovataya, whitish and Clitocybe Clitocybe Orange, better known as the false chanterelle.
Govorushko all the mushrooms of the genus called because they always grow in groups, as if specially come together to conduct endless talk.