Toxic effects of poisonous mushrooms
By the nature of the impact of poisonous mushrooms per person can be divided into several groups.
Poisonous mushrooms with local (local) irritant, usually causing a violation of the digestive system functions.Many fungi, which form toxins that group, causing light poisoning, which are not dangerous for life and usually disappear within 2-4 days.This group includes mushrooms (ryzheyuschy and spotted), satanic mushroom, false raincoats, and some types of syroezhek mlechnikov with pungent taste, undercooked autumn mushrooms (real) and others. Toxic substances of this group of fungi caused mainly gastrointestinal disorders.
Symptoms: weakness, sweating, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and sometimes fainting, - there are sometimes in 15 minutes, and at the latest - in 1-2 hours after ingestion of mushroom dishes to eat.
However, a group of fungi that cause a violation of the digestive system, for individual modes, which can also cause life-threatening poisoning.These include blewi
However, children and people weakened by illness, probably severe complications and even death.
Poisonous mushrooms contain toxins neurotropic.Toxic substances causing this group of fungi, most notably, disorders of the central nervous system.This group is big enough.Currently, it includes many species of fly agaric (pogankovidny, pantherina, pineal), certain types of inocybe, govorushek, ryadovok, entolom and Sivyakov and emetic russula.The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms action includes fungi of the genus psilocybe (psilocybe semilanceata), and some species of the family strophariaceae (Fig.).
From the history of the discovery of toxins neyrotorpnyh first alkaloid neyrotorpnogo action in its influence close to acetylcholine and muscarine called, was opened in the red has a webcam.The first explorers muscarinic - German toxicologists Schmiedeberg and Koppe - assumed that it is the main poisonous red mushroom.However, it later turned out that A. muscaria muscarine contains very little (from 0.00033 to 0.0016% wet weight of the fungus), whereas in other types of amounts of this substance is much larger.So, in inocybe erubescens muscarinic 25 times more (up to 0.037%) than in A. muscaria.
Investigations red mushroom toxins have been launched in the middle of the XIX century.In 1869, German researchers Schmiedeberg and Koppe alkaloid isolated from the fungus.The new substance was called muscarine.A lethal dose of the toxin for humans is 300-350 mg.This amount is contained in 40-80 g inocybe erubescens and 2-4 kg of fly agaric.
The action of muscarine after 30 minutes, at the most 2 hours, there is a strong contraction of the pupils, slows the pulse and respiration, lowers blood pressure, increases the secretory activity of sweat glands and mucous membranes of the nose and mouth.In the future, there are hallucinations, fits of laughter or crying, loss of consciousness, and indigestion.
As a result of further investigation, in addition to muscarinic were open 3 more of active compounds having a psychotropic effect: muscazone, ibotenic acid and muscimol.It is this group of toxins causes the characteristic symptoms of poisoning red fly agaric.Muscimol, which is a derivative ibotenic acid - the main red mushroom toxin, the content of which in this fungus is from 0.03 to 0.1% by weight of fresh mushrooms.In the future, these toxins have been found in other poisonous mushrooms: ibotenic acid contained in the pineal has a webcam and pantherina;triholomovaya acid, which is derived ibotenic acid - in some types of ryadovok.In pogankovidnogo and porphyry toadstools found fairly high concentration of toxins with a strong psychotropic action of unknown chemical structure.
If poisoning by muscarine and its derivatives purify the stomach and intestines and produce medicines for de-excitation and normalization of cardiac activity and respiration.It is very effective in cases of poisoning by muscarine atropine, quickly restoring normal heart function.With timely first aid and medical treatment in a hospital recover within 2-4 days.
Strong influence of hallucinogenic mushrooms have a kind of psilocybe (psilocybe semilanceata) and some representatives strophariaceae (Stropharia Gornemanna (Fig.), And others.).
The history of the discovery psilocybe kind of toxins.It is related to the conquest of the indigenous peoples of Central and South America.The manuscripts of the XVI century., Telling about the conquests of the conquistadors, there are mentions of the divine mushroom "teonanacatl" that American Indians used in rituals.During excavations in Guatemala have been found stone sculptures depicting mythical creatures with mushrooms, climbing over them.Scientists who have studied the mountainous areas of Mexico, once present at the ritual, preserved there since ancient times.Before him, participants ate a magical effect special mushrooms, then fell into a trance and hallucinations.Later, the French mycologist R. Ayman found that mushrooms ritual of ancient Indian tribes - a new species of the genus psilocybe.
Later from the fungus by chemical synthesis have been isolated close psychoactive compounds - psilocybin and psilocin, we studied their structure and properties.
psilocybin, found in a large number of fungi of the genus psilocybe family and strophariaceae, non-toxic, but a dose of 1 mg every 20 minutes after drinking causes a person is drunk.A dose of 4 mg leads to a state of detachment from reality, when receiving a high dose (12 mg) having hallucinations, profound changes are observed in the psyche.In addition to the hallucinogenic substances in fungi species found psilocybe 2 alkaloid infringing activity of the cerebral cortex.
At the same time psilocybin in small doses used in medical practice for the treatment of mental illness: patients suffering from memory loss, revive memories, a sense of looseness, disappear fear and dread.
shlyapochnye Poisonous mushrooms with a pronounced plazmotoksicheskim action.For this group of fungi is also characterized by a long latent (hidden) period of toxins in the body.This group includes pale grebe, and close to it by the action of fly agaric, as well as web-nik orange-red, false mushrooms - sulfur-yellow and brick red, some types inocybe, morel and lopastnikov.
Action toxins pale toadstool
most dangerous fungus that group - death cup: it contains toxins, even in very small doses are lethal to humans.Toxic pale toadstool and certain types of fly agaric (smelly and spring), is determined by their content of fallo- and amatoksinov.
Fallotoksiny -. Complex consisting of components such as phalloidin, fallisin, Fallon, Fallin, fallotsin, fallizin etc.
dangerous toxins contained in pale toadstool, lies in the fact that, once in the stomach and then into the bloodpoisonous substances for a long time (up to 48 hours or more) do not cause overt symptoms of poisoning.And even after the absorption of toxins in the blood when they reach certain organs, violation of their work goes unnoticed at first.This is called latent (hidden) period.Danger here is that there are no visible symptoms, whereas toxins cause irreversible changes in the internal organs, for example, lead to necrosis of the liver or kidney.
Symptoms of poisoning are expressed only after the toxins get into the brain and begin to affect the nerve centers that regulate the function of individual organs.As a result of increased activity of intestinal muscles begin to intensively allocated gastric juice and mucus, begin vomiting and diarrhea.The body is dehydrated, the blood thickens, there is an unquenchable thirst and cramps, lips and nails turning blue, hands and feet are cold.The next stage - fall in blood pressure.This happens because the poisons paralyze the nerves that regulate the blood vessels, so that blood is retained in the vessels.
first work on the study of toxins pale toadstool have begun F. Lynen and W. Wieland.In 1937, they managed to get a crystalline form of the toxin, which has been called phalloidin.After 4 years, scientists have identified a second toxin - amanitin.About the harmfulness of these components indicates medical statistics: from 90 to 95% of all deaths occur as a result of poisoning pale toadstool.
In rare cases, there may come a short improvement, but this time, as a rule, the body has already taken place, irreversible degeneration of the heart, liver, spleen and kidneys.The patient's condition is deteriorating again, and even begun treatment probability of death may be from 8 to 30%.
In fungi family Mukhomorov (pale toadstool and Amanita virosa) found a protein toxin that causes hemolysis - the dissolution of red blood cells.In addition to the fly agaric, hemolytic proteins are also found in edible mushrooms: in oyster, volvariella, winter mushroom and mushroom gray-pink.However, it should be emphasized that these toxins in these mushrooms are destroyed at a temperature of 70 "C, so after boiling and frying the mushrooms completely neutralized and can be eaten.
Currently, doctors are developing new methods for the treatment of poisoning pale toadstool. In the first placethey are aimed at the normalization of the liver. it is known that homeopaths are trying to treat like with like, but used in small doses. From pale toadstool and mushroom substance of protein nature were received smelly, which has a neutralizing effect on the toxins of these fungi. also, serum have been developed that protect the body. from poisoning poison toadstools
Apart from fungi of the genus Mukhomorov dangerous toxins contain lines (common and giant), as well as some types of cortinarius and lopastnikov (fungi of the genus gelvella)
Action toxins morel
lines -. mushrooms special Vaud.many regions of our country lines approved for the procurement and sale as conditionally edible mushrooms.After appropriate processing can be eaten, and usually it does not lead to some serious consequences.At the same time in Germany and some other Western countries morel sale was banned in the XIX century.after cases of poisoning by these fungi.
fact that fresh lines detected toxin, which is similar in effect to the toxic substances contained in the pale toadstool.It also affects almost all internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart), destroys the red blood cells.Mushroom toxin can be up to 0.5% weight of dried mushrooms.
According to medical statistics, poisoning can occur after the use of not only poisonous, but conditionally edible mushrooms.If poisoning uncleared lines appear nausea, vomiting, severe headache, convulsions.It can cause death in a dose of 400 g of unseasoned mushrooms.
contained in the lines of poisonous substances are not destroyed even after prolonged boiling.But after a long (at least 5-6 months) drying in air toxic substances are neutralized, and can be used to prepare a variety of dishes.
Some mycologists suggested that the biosynthesis and the formation of toxic substances depends on the conditions of growth of these fungi.Others believe that the dangerous toxin is produced by the decomposition of protein in the overripe fruit bodies of fungi.Symptoms of poisoning occur within 6 to 10 hours. They include fatigue, headache, jaundice, prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, overcrowding in the stomach, pain in the liver.In severe poisoning can occur convulsions, delirium, dyspnea, heart failure and impaired function of the lungs, which can even be fatal.
To prevent this, it is necessary to take timely measures to provide first aid and call a doctor.Treated this poisoning penicillin Thioctacide and vitamins B6, C, K
Action toxins cortinarius
Among the little-known toxin refers orellanine contained in certain cortinarius.Studies of this toxin were initiated after
being in Poland in the 50s.XX century.there were more than 100 cases of poisoning by this fungus, with one in six fatal.This type of toxin consists of 2 fractions.Each of them has a high mortality rate actions, but by the nature of the impact on the human body, they are very different.The first component orellanine cause asphyxia and respiratory failure, the second leads to the motor paralysis.
danger of this toxin is shown in a very secretive long-term impact.For the duration of the flow it is superior latency pale toadstool.Symptoms of poisoning cortinarius sometimes appear only after 2 weeks.During this time, the toxin affects the kidneys, which can also cause death.