In the wild honeysuckle growing on Kamchatka, in the forests of Primorye Territory, in the Kuriles.Among the many species of wild honeysuckle, a group of blue honeysuckles, which berries are edible.With a pleasant sweet-sour taste, they have long attracted the attention of local residents, which they ate.Famous travelers, explorers of Kamchatka and Primorye, W. Atlas, S. Krasheninnikov, P. Kuzmischev description given edible honeysuckle in their reports back in the XV1 -X1 X centuries.But the beginning of the cultivation of wild honeysuckle put TD Mauritzen Nerchinsk until the end of X1 X century.Honeysuckle Kamchatka usually contains no bitterness, but it is easy to fall ripening berries.Kamchatka honeysuckle grows slowly and does not have high bushes.Honeysuckle of the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, on the contrary, is growing rapidly, has high, up to 1.8 m, bushes.As a rule, the berries have a slight bitterness.
wild honeysuckle second center is located in the Altai and Sayan.Amo
beginning of breeding work on honeysuckle put another 1/1.Michurin at the beginning of the XX century.Gradually we formed three centers, where they began to seriously engage in breeding work on breeding garden forms of edible honeysuckle: Barnaul, Tomsk region and in Pavlovsk near St. Petersburg.In Pavlovsk working famous scientist F. K.Teterev, and to him we owe the first good grades, which appeared in our garden plots almost immediately after the war.Until recently, honeysuckle spread amateur gardeners, because it was not included in the State Register of berry crops, recommended for cultivation in the territory of Russia, although the breeding work was carried out continuously.Only in the very last years of the second millennium began honeysuckle finally grown in nurseries for distribution in the gardens.A very large contribution to the breeding work on this promising culture has made Maria Nikolaevna Plekhanov - famous St. Petersburg scientist, doctor with / agricultural sciences.For 20 years, robots VIR it created great varieties of honeysuckle, which is rightly included in the range of garden plants not only in our country but also abroad.I must say that MN Plekhanov exerted a lot of effort and a wide spread of this magnificent and very promising culture, especially among amateur gardeners Northwest.Unfortunately, this remarkable woman no longer with us.
honeysuckle bushes in the garden erect, densely branched, relatively high (7-8 years of age, they may reach 1.5-1.8 m), spreading (with a diameter up to 2 m).Each bush is from 12 to 18 skeletal branches.Because kidney gains last year, a year grow new shoots in the axils of lower leaves which produce flowers and then fruit.During the summer in the axils of the upper leaves are gradually laid the flower buds with the harvest next year.The root system of the bush beyond the perimeter of the crown 50-60 cm. It is necessary to say that honeysuckle tap root system, that is, the roots can penetrate deep enough into the ground.The bulk of suction roots are in the soil at a depth of 50-80 cm.
honeysuckle can grow in one place up to 20 years, but it carries the transplant almost any age.Starting from 3-4 years with her "peel off" bark flaking long strips and exposing reddish wood.Afraid it is not necessary, because it is simply a feature of honeysuckle.Wood is very strong, and if you want to divide the bush, it will need to cut.
honeysuckle have very characteristic arrangement of buds and leaves: they are distributed on a branch round pairs opposite each other, they usually have more and stipules.Therefore, honeysuckle seedlings difficult to confuse with any other plants with their purchase.
Fruit of honeysuckle - a stem, which is formed from the overgrown bracts, but gardeners are usually called its fruits berries, so they will be referred to in this book.
varieties derived from Kamchatka honeysuckle, and hybrids derived from its participation (Pavlovskaya, Amphora, Morena, Violet, blue spindle, Nymph, Titmouse), the most suitable for growing in cold summer.For various other regions of the country can be recommended Tomichku, Bochkarskuyu, Vasyugan, Blue Bird, blue spindle, Cinderella, Borel, Gerd, Kamchadalku, Sineglazka, Chernichko.There are other varieties that have been recommended by the variety trials and nurseries for breeding.For the North-west and Nechernozemie greatest interest are varieties developed MN Plekhanov and her students.
From early grades it is Mirena.A bush of medium height, not thickening, with a rounded crown.Fruits are large, a little more than 1 year yield up to 2 kg per bush.The berries are sour-sweet, with some bitterness, with a pleasant, mild flavor, a little crumble.
Middle-ripening variety Nymph.A bush of medium height with a round canopy.Large spindle about 1.2 g of weight berries have a strong aroma and sweet taste, without bitterness, a little crumble.Yields of up to 2 kg per bush.
Variety Viola and medium ripening.It has strong-bush with a dense oval crown.The fruits are large, weighing about 1 g, oval, slightly thickened towards the apex, have little spicy bitterness, do not crumble.Grade early appearance of fruit.Productivity is high - 3-4 kg.
Grade Amphora middle ripening.It has a medium-sized shrub with a rounded crown sparse.Weight 1 g of fruits, berries are not showered.Harvest of 1.6 to 2.7 kg.
Violet Variety refers to varieties of medium.Scrub her medium height, thick, slaboraskidisty.Weight 1.14 g osypaemost fruit fruits weak.The taste of sweet and sour fruits, without bitterness.Harvest of 1.3 to 1.8 kg.
Honeysuckle very hardy: its wood and growth buds tolerate frosts of -50 degrees, flower buds and roots - to -40 degrees, and the buds, flowers, young ovary - to -8 degrees.Flowering takes place at a time when the average daily temperature passes through zero degrees (in the North-West it usually occurs in mid-April, so time to honeysuckle ottsvesti to start late spring frosts and almost never they are not damaged).
What I like honeysuckle?Good tucked organic loam soil acidic reaction which should be close to neutral (pH 6-7), and the sun.Although in the shade it grows quite well, but bad fruits.In addition, it needs a good company as the honeysuckle - pёrekrestnoopylyaemoe plant.That she gave a good crop, to plant it should be a group of 3-4 bushes of different varieties.Honeysuckle water-loving, that is, it must be watered in the dry and hot weather, especially in the spring and early summer.She loves and humid air (so feels good in areas with high humidity).For gardens Northwest honeysuckle is simply irreplaceable.
Why does not like honeysuckle?She does not like stagnant waters and near the shallow, because in such a situation, it rots the root system.Honeysuckle negatively reacts to acidic soil (foliage begins to fade and fall harvest), although reconciled with her, especially when planted in the fatty clay or loam.It does not approve of it, and mineral fertilizer, preferring it organic.
Since early this plant ends the growing season and in late July into a state of rest, the growth processes in a honeysuckle at this point terminated.All further changes in external conditions do not cause her dormant buds blooming until spring, honeysuckle and so can be planted during August, September, October, and even until mid-November.Spring planting and transplanting honeysuckle are only permitted method of handling together with a large lump of earth from one place to another, without transportation, or planting seedlings of the container.But the plant still get sick and take root poorly.This is explained by the fact that the honeysuckle is awakened very early in the spring.Already in late March and early April in her buds, and from that moment it is not desirable to disturb.
place for planting honeysuckle should be chosen so that the plants all day illuminated by the sun, while they can be planted on the north side of the site and do not care about the cover from the cold winds.Honeysuckle can be planted even in the south side of the tree so that the sun fell on them.The distance between the bushes should be left at least 1.5 m, as over time the bushes spread out pretty widely and passages between them become too narrow.In honeysuckle very brittle branches that break off easily if their sloppy touch when collecting berries.Shrubs can be planted in the corner of a group or distribute through the fence or property line.The good neighbor for the honeysuckle is a black currant, so they can grow in the same row.
should say that honeysuckle - undemanding plant, it is adapted to the different types of soils and harsh climate, and therefore does not require special care.Moreover, it can grow in a wide soil pH range - from pH 4.5 to pH 7.5.However, if planted honeysuckle directly on virgin soil, on the undeveloped area, the quality and quantity of berries fall so low that there is no need to buy it and.Previously should dig a planting hole measuring 40 x 40 x 40 cm. The pit run by well-rotted compost at the rate of two buckets under a bush.Add in the pit-liter jar of ashes and 3 tbsp.tablespoons of double granulated superphosphate.Instead of the ash can be taken chalk, dolomite or half-liter cans of lime and 3 tbsp.spoons of superphosphate to add 2 tbsp.spoons of potassium fertilizer.If you do land on sandy soils, the organic increase the dose to three buckets.
then should mix well all that you have made in the planting hole, add water to the soil became moist throughout the depth of the pit.Make a small mound in the center inside the well.Spread the roots.If there is broken, it is natural that they should be cut to the whole part.Cover the top of any loose soil, including the possible use of that which is removed when digging out of the hole.Be sure to sprinkle again with water, so that the soil is well adhered to the roots and pour it further on.Since honeysuckle makes basal offshoots, it can not bury into the soil at planting, but in my experience, it is better bury the root neck when landing on a 5-6 cm, as with age on the bottom, the recess, with the time of the stalk to the additionaladventitious roots.The soil for planting should be immediately zamulchirovat mulch any material (including several layers of newspapers), to prevent the evaporation of moisture from the surface.
Pay attention to one important point.Honeysuckle bushes when planting, unlike most of the berry bushes are not pruned and not pruned, because it retards the growth and development of plants, and consequently, its entry into fruition.The value of the plants just in that it quickly comes into fruition.
further care honeysuckle is pruning of broken, dried branches, as well as thickening, growing inside the crown.Do it better in the early autumn.The first three years the plants only need weeding, timely watering.From the third year should bring a bucket of organic matter under a bush in the spring and for a half-liter jar of ashes at the beginning of August.At the beginning of the growing season, that is literally melting snow, should be given nitric fertilizer (1 tbsp. Spoon of urea per 10 liters of water under a bush).But even if you will not do this, honeysuckle still give you, however small, berry crops.bushes yield with good care is high, up to 4-6 kg per bush.However, it gradually increases and reaches a maximum value only for the seventh year.After 18-20 years of fruiting is reduced due to the withering away of the major skeletal branches.The bush can rejuvenate the severe pruning, cutting gradually, year after year, non-bearing part of the branches to the trunk.
Honeysuckle easily propagated by seeds.But as honeysuckle cross-pollinated plant, the progeny of her parents almost saved properties, and there are some new varieties, often much worse than the parent.However, there may come a plant with berries of excellent taste.Therefore, seed multiplication method is mainly used in breeding, as well as in cases where the honeysuckle grown for landscaping.But this does not mean amateur gardeners can not take advantage of seed multiplication.Once the berries are ripe, they can be a smear on the toilet paper, pushing apart the seeds at a distance of 1 cm. Give them dry.Then should inscribe the year and turn the paper into a roll.At room temperature, the germination of seeds remain high for two years, but quite satisfactory - about four years.The stratification only need seeds that had been stored for more than two years.
easiest just to sow the seeds in June gathered in moist soil, buried them only 0.5 mm.because they are very small.It is best to plant them in a box, which should be placed in a greenhouse, planting and cover glass or film, but so that it does not lay on the ground.The main thing that has not dried up the top layer of soil.Seedlings appear in about 20 days after sowing.Late autumn boxes bring to the street for the winter under the snow.The seedlings of winter-hardy and easy to tolerate frosts.
can sow the seeds of this summer in late October and even in November.The box with the sown seeds just left on the street, where it hibernates under the snow.In this case, the seeds are a natural stratification and germinate in the early spring.If they move in April in a greenhouse, then quickly shoots appear very friendly.Picks produce when seedlings grow to 2-3 cm and they have formed by 2- 3 pairs of true leaves.Picking can be done directly in the open ground under the scheme 5 x 5 cm on the prepared free of the bed of weeds.It requires constant watering, hoeing and weed control, if they appear.The following year, they are placed under the scheme 20 × 20 cm.
Usually the seedlings come into fruition already on the 3-4th year after planting.At this point, and should be selected among them those with the largest and most delicious berries, without the slightest sign of bitterness, and the rest thrown away or used to create a green fence, the more so as the honeysuckle is well shorn.That same autumn selected in taste plants are transplanted into place.Bushes that have not only good taste, but also high yielding, unfortunately, you will be able to determine only after 7-8 years.
If you want to save the properties of the parent, you should propagate honeysuckle vegetatively by dividing the bush or the rooting of cuttings.Share bushes can be aged 8 to 15 years.Since honeysuckle extremely durable wood, to divide the bush can only be by means of a saw and an ax.Each part must be separated by at least two stems and branches 2-3 skeletal roots and about 20 cm each.Branches recommended cut shears at a height of 30-40 cm. De Lenka immediately planted in the prepared place.
But it is much more efficient to propagate honeysuckle cuttings.On the one bush can be grown nacherenkovat and sit up to 200 plants.For harvesting hardwood cuttings using the strongest annual branches with a diameter of not less than 7-8 mm.They are cut off from the bushes in early spring, in late March, before bud burst.Slice into pieces 15-18 cm long and are planted as soon as the ground thaws, right in the greenhouse or on a bed, bury in the soil at 10 cm, so that on the surface there were only the two upper buds.Shelter lutrasilom or film increases the survival rate of cuttings.The roots of the cuttings appear about 30 days after rooting.You can of grafted honeysuckle in May, immediately after flowering.To do this, cut off from the bush-year (last year) escaped together with the growing shoots of the year.Slice into pieces so that the base of each of the young escape was a piece of last year's branches, where he grew up.Cuttings are planted in the garden, buried in the soil at 3-5 cm. It is better to put the film on the cuttings cover and moderate water them 2-3 times a day.After about 12-15 days in the cuttings start growing tops of the shoots and the roots are formed at the base.Transplant in their place will be next fall.These cuttings are called combined.
can propagate honeysuckle and green cuttings.It is known that the best green cuttings obtained from growing shoots, the current decay time in their growth.In honeysuckle at this time begin to be colored berries.That is the best time for propagation by cuttings in the Northwest - the beginning of June.