It is the oldest and most common method of harvesting herbs.Due to the loss of water plants lose 60-90 % weight.There are two types of drying: natural (solar) and artificial.
Natural drying occurs in the air, in the sun or in the shade under the influence of the hot sun dry air.For this purpose, sieve trays, tin plate or simply spread out on the surface of the cloth or paper.Device for drying veiled rough cloth or paper (this is especially important if drying small flowers and leaves), laid out on it a thin layer of greens and herbs and put on the sunlit place or in the shade under the canopy.
When harvesting herbs and grasses collected from 10 m2, sufficient on average to 1 m2 drying.
is necessary to provide sufficient air movement for full ventilation, otherwise the raw materials will start to rot and deteriorate.Solar drying air depending on the temperature and duration of daylight raw material can last from 1 to 5 days.Periodically stir and turn the raw materials to ensure its uniform drying.
collected grass bind small bundles to the plants in the interior of a beam dry out evenly.Bunches
, hung in a dry place, or under a canopy
Plants containing essential oils (thyme, thyme, marjoram, mint, etc.), Dried slowly, at a temperature no higher than 30-35 ° C, soboth at the higher temperature oil evaporate and the plant loses its value.
Plants containing glycosides or form (mustard, lily of the valley, and others.), Must be dried at a higher temperature to 50-60 ° C, at which quickly stops the activity of enzymes that destroy glycosides.Plants containing ascorbic acid (primrose, hips, etc.), Dried at a temperature of 80-90 ° C to avoid its destruction.
natural drying drawback is the possible contamination of raw insects, dust and sand in a strong wind or soil particles.Therefore, spread out for drying herbs and greens better top cover with gauze or mesh.
aerial parts of the plant - leaves, flowers, stems, shoots and underground parts of plants containing essential oils and glycosides, dried protected from direct sunlight, since exposure to sunlight destroyed concentrated in the plant material.They should only be dried in the shade.Rhizomes with roots as well as fruits and seeds, if there is any specific recommendations can be dried in the sun.
Such herbs like parsley, dill, celery, coriander, chervil, can be hung to dry in bunches.To do this, cut green harvested in bunches, tie up and hang heads down under a canopy or in a ventilated room.
Drying is considered complete when:
flowers are hard to the touch, the touch crumble, retain the original, only darker, color;
- leaves curl, become stiff to the touch, easily crushed under compression in the palm of your hand and pounded into a fine dry powder, maintain a healthy green color;
stalks lose their elasticity and break with a slight flexion;
roots and rhizomes are heavily wrinkled, do not bend when bent and broken with a bang, while stressing the white dust;
fruit becomes wrinkled, darkened, clenched in his hand do not stick together, do not stick together and does not stain.The seeds become brown color, do not stick together, become dry and crumbling.Artificial
hot air drying is carried out in special ovens.At home, in the ordinary oven cooker can be used as a dryer, a Russian stove, wood stove, stationary and portable summer furnace type "stove".For drying in an oven or furnace required metal trays and wooden trays, which are pre-veiled parchment paper.On paper, laid a thin layer of greens and herbs collected and dried.During the drying should constantly monitor the temperature, it must be optimal, since the raw material at low temperature steamed, starts to rot from its condensate and deteriorates, and if too high - burns and loses all its valuable qualities and properties.Very good results are obtained by drying in a Russian oven, and can be dried and on the outer surface of the furnace or couches, laid out her paper.For each species of grasses and herbs there is a limit of drying temperature at which it is possible to obtain a dried product of good quality.
Herbs containing essential oils, dried at temperature no higher than 35-40 ° C., to avoid unwanted volatilization of essential substances.
If the leaves begin to rustle under the touch and can be easily separated from the stem, which means that the drying process is completed.The dried comminuted plant is often used for this purpose mesh with large holes.Plants packed in sealed containers, label glued to the contents of the description, the year of harvest and possible features.It is advisable to indicate on the label the purpose and method of use of the plant.
The effectiveness of herbal teas and herbs aroma decrease, despite careful storage.Therefore, collected herbs should be used within one year after the harvest, but their stocks - again replenished in the new season.
roots of parsley and celery thoroughly washed, cleaned and allowed to dry.They are then finely cut and dried in the oven at a temperature no higher than 60-65 ° C. until ready.