chokeberry Aronia

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

Aronia - Rowan Canadian.She came to Russia in the late XIX century.Quite a lot of selection chokeberry studied Michurin.But the real distribution of chokeberry received from amateur gardeners only after the war.Like the red mountain ash, chokeberry - undemanding plant.It suits almost any soil, according to the meager soils and shallow nada harvest berries.So, if you want to obtain high yields of large, juicy berries, if you please make the soil before planting is well rotted compost.Aron planted in the fall.Planting pits are doing 50 x 50 cm, if planted in a single bush somewhere in a corner, or a continuous trench digging when planting a continuous green fence along the border area or fence.In this case, the distance between the bushes left in the 2-2.5 m

Overview:. this culture is often called aronia, that in fact is not entirely true, but reflects the similarity with the usual rowan.Homeland chokeberry - North America.As an ornamental and food plant it is diluted in many countries.This spreading

shrub up to 3 m with a crown diameter of 2 m. The root system is fibrous, highly branched.Horizontal roots are located no deeper than 35-40 cm, vertical -. 1 m

shrub of the Rosaceae family, height of 2 m, ovate to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate leaves up to 6 cm long, bright green in summer, autumn - red.The flowers are white or pink, five-membered, more than 1 cm in diameter, collected on 10 of 35 items in the thyroid inflorescences.Fruits yablokoobraznye or spherical, up to 1 cm in diameter, purple-black, shiny, with eight yellow-brown wrinkled seeds.It flowers in May and June, fruits ripen in September.

chokeberry Aronia comes from North America.We bred as an ornamental plant for decoration of streets, gardens and parks.Planting it near St. Petersburg and in the Altai have gained commercial importance and are used for harvesting berries.

Fruits of chokeberry have a pleasant sour-sweet, more pungent taste.They contain up to 8% of sugar, and malic al. Organic acids much iodine, vitamin P significant amount (about 0.5%), as well as vitamins C, B ,null, RR and carotene (provitamin A).Vitamins are well preserved in the berries and the juice of chokeberry, they stimulate appetite, increase the acidity and digestive effect of gastric juice.Very useful for people suffering from gastritis with low acidity of gastric juice.

In addition, it was found that the fresh fruit and the juice of chokeberry Aronia cause a significant reduction in blood pressure in hypertension.In individuals with normal blood pressure usually such action is not observed.Apparently, the therapeutic effect depends on the presence in the body of vitamin P (tsetrina) and vitamin C to promote absorption of the former.

Based on clinical observation is recommended to use for high blood pressure of 100 g or Aronia berry juice 50 g of them 3 times a day.

self-pollinating flowers, bloom quite late - in late May - early June.The fruits are round, black color and a waxy coating.

Requirements: light- and moisture-loving, but it is very taxing.It can be planted in those areas where there will grow an apple tree or pear - which come close to the ground water.Undemanding to heat, frost hardy, can grow and bear fruit up to the northern border of agriculture lands.Aronia is resistant to pests and diseases.

Composition: the content of vitamin P, it surpasses all kinds of mountain ash and many other fruit and berry crops.Additionally, Aronia rich in vitamin C, iodine, iron.

Landing: landing can be carried out in both autumn and spring.The distance between plants

2-2,5 m. The planting hole should be prepared with a diameter of 60 cm, a depth of 40-50 cm. The planting hole is filled loose fertile soil, add 2-3 buckets of compost, peat, 150 g superphosphate, 50-70 g of potassium sulfate.planting technique is no different from planting other berry plants.After planting mulch and water the tree trunks.

Care: chokeberry responds well to organic fertilizers annually.Pruning to 7-8 years of age do like sanitary, and later in life spend the normalization of shoots and rejuvenation.In forming a bush leave it up to the age of 40 different shoots.Old, broken, thin and poorly developed shoots should be removed at ground level, leaving in their place of 3-5 young shoots.On the bush chokeberry may appear of the leaf, cherry sawfly slimy, aphid and rose fly.During the mass of insects larvae on the surface of leaves bushes should be treated with insecticides.Diseases on the chokeberry is not noticed.

Pruning: chokeberry in its structure is typical of the bush and in the first years after planting is characterized by a high rate of growth and the formation of root seedlings.The base of the bush while greatly expanding the branches grow up rapidly, overtaking each other, inside the crown lighting is greatly reduced and fruiting is moved to the peripheral portions of the crown.To prevent this, it is necessary to adjust the number of branches in the crown by its formation.After planting, the plant should be cut at a height of 20 cm above ground level.Next spring of shoots, regrown from the roots, selected 5 most powerful and well-located branches, shorten them to equalize in the power of growth so that the tops of all the branches were on the same level.Selected branch will serve as the backbone of the crown, and the rest should be cut at the base at ground level.The following season the same way you need to fill up the crown for another 3-5 branches in a year - 5 more branches.At the formation of the crown can be considered complete, since the total number of stems in the bush should not be more than 15-20.

Annual pruning bush chokeberry

Annual pruning bush chokeberry is the regular removal of excess basal branches, shaded and poorly placed branches in the center of the crown in order to prevent its thickening.The chokeberry bush must always be no more than 15-20 branches of different ages.This is the maximum amount for which there is no reduction of illumination bush crown.With age, need to be cut out of the old crown otplodonosivshie branches.Old to chokeberry branch considered the age of 8-10 years, lost the ability to lay the flower buds and fruit.It is also necessary sanitary cleaning of the crown with the removal of the sick, dry, broken, weak and thin branches.The sections should be performed as close to the ground to short stumps remained.

Harvest: fruits ripen simultaneously, so you can remove them at once - before freezing to preserve vitamins.Collect aronia berries, cutting off the branches with whole bunches.Harvested grapes are stored for a long time in a cool place.

Using the fruit is used to treat hypertension, gastritis and atherosclerosis.Dark ruby ​​juice is a consummate food coloring.Because juice is preparing a high-quality wine, liqueurs, cordials and jellies.

very useful product processing is a jam, 1 tbsp.l.which provides the daily requirement for vitamin Human R. Dried fruits of Aronia retain the therapeutic properties to the full.

Features cultivation

Planting When planting under the bushes need to make a glass of double granulated superphosphate.Seedlings at planting bury into the soil at 5-6 cm. Aronia light-requiring and moisture-loving.In dry and hot weather, it should be watered a couple of times a month by pouring 3-4 buckets of water under a bush.In moderately dry summer irrigation is not required, because it has quite a deep root system.When planting the stems should be shortened to one-third of their length.In the future, only to be cut or broken branches aging.Pruning made in early spring, before bud burst.

Old branches can be easily distinguished from the young.Around 7-8 th year of life, they begin to grow shorter lateral branches, while the young branches lateral branches usually grow up to 20-30 cm in summer.If the bush is not exempt from old branches, it is strongly thickened and fruiting it falls.Firstly, on the old shoots almost no berries, and secondly, due to the thickening in the middle of the bush does not get light and fruiting all shifted to the periphery of the bush, the branches of the bush is empty inside.From this immediately follows the conclusion: chokeberry very light-requiring.It should be planted in the sun, and since it is extremely hardy (frost brings more than 40 degrees), it can be planted along the northern boundary of the site to protect it from the north and north-easterly winds.

Feeding

care is fertilizing, hoeing the soil under the bushes, weeding.Once every two years, in the spring, it is necessary to make a bucket of organic matter and 2 tbsp.tablespoons of double granulated superphosphate bush along the perimeter of the crown.But, even if you do not take care of the Aron, it will still be you bestow berries annually.Just do not blow out of the bush deciduous leaves with her, and she will feed herself.

Reproduction

Propagated chokeberry seed (it's long), a woody cuttings and green, layering, and even easier - root suckers, or dividing the bush.

at Aaron can instill a pear.But at the branch chokeberry thin pear is very quickly becoming much thicker than that of the stock, and therefore easily break off branches chokeberry.Under them should be put permanent, well-fortified backup.

Aronia blooms late, when already pass by frost, so it is them and not particularly afraid of diseases and pests of this plant either.So the most basic care: do not forget to cut the old branches, and avoid more than 10 shoots in a bush.Cut unnecessary branch should be at the very root.

Useful properties

aronia berries are healthy and tasty, you just have time to remove them, otherwise they perezreyut and immediately lose their taste or their sklyuyut birds.

collection time - the end of August and beginning of September.In

berries contain all vitamins, especially vitamin C lot furthermore iodine, p-active agents, beta-carotene, glucose, fructose, pectins, organic acids.Fruits of chokeberry facilitate removal from the body of radioactive strontium, lower blood pressure.But there are contraindications: aronia berry juice thickens the blood.On the one hand, it leads to rapid blood coagulation, and therefore to a good wound healing, and the other - promotes the formation of blood clots, which is dangerous for patients thrombophlebitis.In this case, you should take blood thinners.

thick low shrub 1,5-2 m. The leaves are in their form resemble cherry leaf, but more brilliant.Flowers quinary type, white or pink in corymbose inflorescences.Fruits are large, black with a bluish bloom, 6-15 mm in diameter, juicy, gathered in bunches.It blooms in June and July, the fruits ripen in late summer and early autumn.

cultivated in Russia as food, medicinal and ornamental plant.

Medicinal raw materials are the fruits in the ripening stage.The taste is pleasant, sweet and sour, astringent.

Chokeberry stimulates appetite, is very useful for people suffering from gastritis with low acidity.Especially valuable is its property to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive disease and thyrotoxicosis.

fruits contain vitamin E, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels, thereby preventing various hemorrhage, lowers blood pressure, the amount of cholesterol in the body and normalizes the cardiovascular system;is recommended for hypertension and atherosclerosis eat in a day in the reception 2-3 250- 300 grams of fruit.

Application

used to treat the fresh juice obtained by pressing the fruit.Take it for 50 g 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals for 10-30 days, depending on the disease and the individual characteristics of the patients.Instead of juice, you can use the fruits of 100 grams at the reception for 30 minutes before eating.

chokeberry drug taking at an elevated blood clotting.Juice and fruits stored in a dark place at a temperature of 3-5 ° C.The juice may be preserved: the pre-filtered, it is poured into clean, dry jars, tightly sealed, sterilized (half-liter - 8-10 minutes, liter - about 10-15 minutes) and hermetically sealed.In the canned juice is almost completely preserved until the spring of the whole complex of biologically active substances.

When eating fruit black chokeberry (1 kg of washed and lightly rub of dried fruits with 700 g of sugar, to take on 75-160 g 2-3 times a day) increases the body's defenses.

Preparations chokeberry especially effective while taking ascorbic acid (extracts of wild rose, black currant).

Recipes

From chokeberry squeeze juice, make jam, cooked with apples.Wine chokeberry has a mediocre taste, but liquor is obtained remarkable.

juice of chokeberry

Squeeze the juice, pour into sterile bottles, cork.

Store in refrigerator.When used diluted with water and add sugar to taste.

juice from fruits chokeberry Aronia n When change for the prevention and treatment of radiation sickness.

has hypotensive action, strengthens the body's defenses, the juice from the fruit is useful for burns.

Liquor chokeberry

1,5 kg of berries, 1 kg of sugar, 2 cups water, 2 g of citric acid, vodka by volume of the resulting syrup 1: 1.

Rowan, water and sugar to boil for about 20 minutes.Berries recline in a colander, drain the syrup.In the cooled syrup, pour the vodka and add citric acid.

Pour into bottles and cork.

EXAMPLE h e n g. The remaining berries spread out on a baking sheet in a single layer and dry in the oven slabonagretoy.Get a tasty raisins, but if the berries are not dosushit they zaplesneveyut, and if dry up, it will become tasteless.Store in a sealed jar.

«Sherry brandy»

100 leaves of cherry, berry chernoplodki 200-250, 1 liter of water, 800 g sugar, 1 teaspoon citric acid, 0.5 liters of vodka (or 0.25 liters of alcohol).

Pour berries and leaves with water and boil for about 10 minutes.Remove from heat, drain, not pressing (otherwise the liquor becomes turbid).

Add sugar, citric acid and boil for 2-3 minutes.Cool and slowly pour in the vodka.

Note.If you use alcohol, it is necessary to pour the syrup into the alcohol, not vice versa, and to add a further 250 ml of cold boiled water.

Raisins chokeberry

1,5 kg of berries, 2 cups water, 1 cup sugar, 1 h. Spoon of citric acid.

Boil the syrup and pour over berries.Cook over low heat, removing the foam.Strain through a colander, to leave no syrup.

on board to lay clean paper and put the berries in a single layer, jerk for 3-4 days in a dry and warm place to fold the berries in a jar and keep in the kitchen shelf for storage.Of the syrup residues make another batch of raisins or add vodka - get liquor.

If berries are under-cured - they zaplesneveyut, and if dry up - they will become tasteless.

Kvass from chokeberry or red rowan

4 liters of water, 1 kg of berries, 400 g sugar, 5 g of yeast.

red berries of mountain ash is necessary to pre-scalded with boiling water and let stand for 10 to 15 minutes, drain the water and immediately cover with cold water, after 5 to 10 minutes, drain the water.With berries chokeberry do anything not required.Berries knead in an enamel bowl, pour the warm sugar syrup (boil water, a little cool).Cover with cheesecloth and let stand in a warm room per night.Strain, add 5 g of yeast, stir and put before the foam in a warm place.

Note.Kvass is ready, but that it does not sour excessively, it should be removed in a cool place.

Jam chokeberry and apples

chokeberry 1 kg, 400 g apples, 1.2 kg sugar, 1 - 1.5 cups of water.

fruits of mountain ash mash with a wooden pestle.Apples cut into slices, remove the seed slot, blanch.To a mixture of fruit add sugar, water and heat over low heat until sugar is dissolved.Heat strengthened and cook until until the mixture is smooth.Packaged in sterile jars.

chokeberry jam with cherry leaves

1 kg of berries, 1 kg of sugar, 25-30 cherry leaves, 1 cup of water.

Absorb mixed berries with sugar and let stand for hours, shaking from time to time.Add the water, put on fire and cook for 20 minutes, stirring occasionally.Lower cherry leaves and cook for about 15 minutes.Cool, remove the leaves, spread out on the banks, close.

Store at room temperature.

Note.