The history of rubber

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Story Of Stuff

«It has significant curative effect: strengthens the stomach, stops vomiting, appetite, and purifies the blood;promotes blood circulation, beneficial effect on the lungs, giving relief from cough, soothes the pain in his side and reduces the suffering of patients with tuberculosis;weakens toothache and strengthens the gums, swollen from scurvy. "Try reading a passage from the ancient medical treatise, guess what kind of medicine.And do not try - do not guess.Because this is not a medicine, and ... rubber.He was credited with medicinal properties, which he did not have, but other more important qualities, strangely enough, people have learned after they began to use this material.

When Christopher Columbus at the end of the XV century brought several pieces of an unknown substance to home, it has not attracted the attention of fellow countrymen: their heads were occupied with thoughts of the other treasures of the newly discovered lands - gold, silver, spices, - in short, that in thosetimes is a real val

ue.Especially curious about the origin of a souvenir nobody knew.However, there were "witnesses" who claimed that this fantastic animal excrement.What is produced by local people from bark incisions resin tverdevshaya in the air and calls "rubber product", it turned out much later.A contemporary of Columbus, in fact, rejected the rubber, when he appeared in Europe for the first time.

Columbus receives gifts Indians.

been almost 250 years.At the meeting gathered the Paris Academy of Sciences.Heard a report by Charles Marie de la Condamine on the journey to South America.But instead of a serious scientist to report indecent for such an important and representative institutions fervor began showing ugly ball of unknown origin, and offered them to admire: "Look closely, ladies and gentlemen, honorable members of the Academy!Look closely!This wonderful little ball more than combined with the stones of the alchemists of the world!He is able to make thousands of species, it can be in thousands of different forms, it is intended to even dry the tears of the people, carrying with them the real happiness for mankind. "Opinion honorable members of the Academy was made unanimously: "Dreamer" So in Europe in the 50s of the XVIII century for the second time rejected the rubber.

Path to the widespread use of rubber paved all known gum eraser.Is still unknown, who first noticed the ability of rubber, or, as it was still called "gum-elastic" easily "eat" pencil line (it is clear that the name "eraser" - a voluntary reduction now disused synonym"rubber")."Father," the eraser is considered to be an Englishman J. Priestley, although it is only described in 1770, a discovery made by a different person - a mechanic E. Nairn.A little more than ten years, and a London coach-master is not afraid to spoil his coat smeared his rubber solution to protect themselves from the rain.Since then, the new material began to conquer the world.

in Vienna in 1821 opened the first factory of rubber products.In France, this time out of it already produced suspenders and garters.In England, there were the first trench coats, named for their inventor Macs.

In the XX century to replace natural rubber synthetic rubber came.For the first time its production was organized in our country under the leadership of Academician SV Lebedev.Rubber - basis for rubbers which consist of one or more polymers of different chemical and additives.Rubber and rubber combined with one concept - "elastomers", thus emphasizing their main characteristic feature - high elasticity.Rubber - a "shoe" for cars, airplanes, bicycles, suits for divers, inflatable dam to protect the city from flooding, and much, much more.

And what happened to the eraser?It has changed little since ancient times.However, it is now made not of natural and synthetic rubber, and he appeared younger brothers, for example elektrolastik.It facilitates the work of draftsmen.This is called a wireless mechanical stiralku.The electric motor driving the gum is not powered from the mains and from the built-in battery enclosure.But ordinary eraser rubber based ink does not erase.And there was a novelty.It consists of a plastic microcapsule filled with solvent.Friction breaks shell capsules, solvent washes and bleaches ink.This eraser washable mascara with tracing paper and a plastic film, which in our time is increasingly imps.But this drawing paper ink eraser erase: it penetrates into the paper too far.

collection with Hevea latex.

There eraser that can erase even the printed text.Why do it?Sometimes the preparation of books to the editor or proofreader is necessary to make small changes in the manuscript printed, remove or replace a few words.But typographic print will not take no gum, and any amendments necessary to squeeze between the words or strings.In refining and easy to make a mistake.Therefore, and constructed an unusual "eraser".This tiny sandblaster that erases text typographic jet of fine abrasive powder.

Spent powder, paper dust and ink immediately absorbed mikropylesosom."Eraser" is suitable not only to amend the limited editions, but also to correct the drawings, as well as to clean the library books from the traces left on the pages of sloppy readers.