Large-fruited strawberry

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

As mentioned above, Russia strawberries is widespread, unfortunately, under the wrong name "Strawberry".

varieties Choice

correct choice of varieties for your area - the key to success.In the northern regions should not be planted not only the southern varieties, but even varieties released for central Russia.Accordingly, and vice versa.You just do not get that sort can give.Landings will always be attacked by the disease, the pests, because the more southern varieties of higher requirements for light and heat, and

northern varieties, specially designed for reduced radiation conditions, they shall afflict them too high milking temperature and solar energy.Nothing but frustration, planting varieties nerayonirovannyh brings.

So, for example, has been the unsurpassed variety for the North-West Festival.His fame took literally all over Russia, but nowhere she did not show himself, as we have.Gardeners North-West awaits another trap when they are offered to grow large-fruited varieties such as Lord, Gig

antella and others like them.The fact that these varieties require very good soil fertility.Thus, under every bush varieties Lord should make not less than the bucket is well rotted compost each year and give him a large supply area, ie to plant it on the scheme 60 × 60 cm. Even so, we are given one very large berries per spike,all the rest of the crop - very mediocre.Recently, widely used different varieties of Bounty and Carmen.They have large, aligned to the size of the berries with firm flesh, which makes them transportable.Thus excellent taste and flavor.Berries perfectly preserved by freezing.

Varieties of strawberry both here and abroad created a great number of (already more than three thousand!).There is no way to bring them all here.You can select some of them for resistance to one or the other plagues.For certain diseases resistant following varieties:

Verticillium Wilt (viral infection) - Vesnyanka, Eternal Spring, Epic, Zeng-Zengana, Zenith, Cinderella, Carnival, Corrado, Ray VIR, Found, Memorial, Pururovaya, Early dense Redgontlit, Redgotlit, Redkout, Ruby, Purple, Spassky, Talisman, Talca, tribute, Tristar, Bounty, Carmen;

leaf spot - La Boheme, epics, Dawn, Marshmallow, Ray VIR, novelty, commemorative, Early dense Festival;

gray mold - Bohemia, Borovitskaya, Grenadier, Zeng-Tigayga, Ray VIR, Makovka, Memorial, Early dense ruby ​​pendant, Troubadour, Fireworks, Fairfax, Holiday, generous, Carmen;

slyunyavka-spittlebug - Dancer Eternal Spring, Govorovsky, Carnival, Lord, Martian, Machern, Regina, Rosanna, Russia, Talisman, Generous, Elista, Anniversary of Leningrad;

spider mite - Eternal Spring, Govorovsky, Carnival, Russia, Totem;Stem nematode - a more or less stable Boheme, epics, Eternal Spring, Dessert Kuban, Carnival, Ray VIR, Early dense Memorial.

Attention! Susceptible to botrytis variety: Zeng-Zengana, Tanning Beauty and Hope.

Nechernozemie zoned for early and middle-early varieties of strawberries: Dawn Kokinskaya early, Beauty Zagorje, Early Maherauha, Muscat Biruliovsky, Hope Zagorje, Pavlovchanka, Roxanne.

Grades middle ripening: Scarlet Dawn, Alice, Pennant, Desnyanka, Zenith, Hope, Beauty Oka, Northern Harvest, Festival, Holiday, Generous, Junius Smayds.

of medium and late varieties: Amulet, Dobrynya, Zeng-Zengana, Cinderella, Redgontlit, Talisman.

for the Northwest zoned early varieties: Dawn, Neva, Early Maherauha, Roxana and latest varieties, by the famous St. Petersburg breeder G. Aleksandrov: Fairy, Beauty, Sudarushka.

Sorceress obtained from known varieties Festival selection JK Katinskoy and varieties ox foreign selection.Bushes powerful, flower stalks are located at the leaf level.The first berries are rounded, dark red, weighing up to 28 g Berries subsequent charges do not lose their shape, their weight is reduced to 10-12, the plants have good winter hardiness, resistance to Verticillium wilt, a fungal disease affects the middle degree.According to my observations, it is best to grow this variety in the 2-3-year-old culture.

Belle obtained by crossing varieties Pavlovchanka and Gorelli.The bush high, with large light-green leaves, stems high above the leaf level.Berries tupokonicheskie, weighing up to '34 Flesh is red, dense.Grade early appearance of fruit, so it is best to grow it in a two-year culture.Then this class is a high yield.The variety is resistant to fading, has good winter hardiness and little susceptible to fungal diseases.

Grade Sudarushka obtained by crossing the Festival with Roxana.Scrub the low, sprawling.Peduncle slightly below the leaf level.Berries lined, shaped like a rounded Yulu, quite large, up to 34 grams, bright red.Scrub gives a lot of mustache, so it is easy to propagate.Sudarushka best way to grow your carpet, laying the plantation under the scheme 70 × 70 cm. The variety is resistant to disease.

Medium early and medium varieties ripening: Alico, Festival, Holiday, Junius Smayds, generous and latest varieties GD Alexandrova Wondrous and Tsarskoye Selo.

Wondrous Variety - one of the best varieties of strawberries after the Festival for the North-West.Obtained grade crossing Festival and Holiday varieties.The bush high, powerful, with large green leaves on thick high cuttings, so it is well blown by the wind, and hence - a small lesion berries botrytis.Berry first collection, large (up to 38 g), the correct tupokonicheskoy shaped, dark red shiny, firm flesh, excellent taste.Follow the berries do not change the form and retain a rather large weight (18 g).Features grade high yield.Variety winter hardy, little damaged by pests and diseases.

Tsarskoselskaya obtained by crossing varieties Pavlovchanka and Holiday.Plants of medium height, semi-spreading bush with dark-green leaves.Flower stalks are below the leaf level.Berry first collection of up to 35 g, dark red, regular oval, in subsequent gatherings shrinking slightly, keeping the shape and attractive presentation.

This variety is very high yield.Sort hardy and resistant to most diseases.Berries are good taste, firm flesh.For our region is the most suitable grade.

From srednepozdnih and late varieties in our region can be recommended varieties Zeng-Zengana and Talisman.Of the new varieties - Onega selection GD Alexandrova.Onega, perhaps - one of the most winter-hardy varieties of strawberries, so it can be recommended for the Karelian Isthmus.He has a very large first berries, excellent flavor.Powerful shrub, tall flower spike rises above the leaves.Yielding variety.

Fruiting continues at the beginning of August.Therefore, I recommend not to handle it in the fall, it is better to postpone it until spring.And of course, it can not be mowed.Favorite Grade obtained by crossing the Onega and Beauty.Of the new varieties of foreign interest are varieties of Gold, Kent, Bounty, but the best in the variety today - Carmen.It is also resistant to low temperatures, but has a better taste than Onega.

Strawberries can pereopylyayutsya, so each variety is best planted separately from other varieties, and even more so, they can not be put on the same beds.

problems frost

Genesis strawberries from tropical countries are explained by her love of the sun and heat and its evergreen foliage, good only hibernating under the snow coat.In areas where there are frequent winter thaws followed by frosts without snow, strawberries can be lost if the frosts reached the mark of 15 degrees below zero, so it should be snowless winters harbor spruce branches, delaying initially fallen snow and keep warm.Opened flowers and strawberries young ovaries are killed at a temperature of from 0.5 to 1 degree below zero (the core of the flower turns black).Therefore, any threat of frosts planting strawberries better cover from the top right through the bushes double lutrasilom or need to install a tunnel above the planting shelter from the film with a very early spring until the frost.The buds stand about two degrees below zero, flower buds - 12. Growth buds are hardier and die after the temperature drops to - 15 degrees.Rhizome killed already at 8 degrees below zero, while the krona remains alive at - 12. That is, the roots of strawberry death occurs at less severe frosts than the death of its evergreen leaves.

Feeding

Strawberry makes relatively few nutrients from the soil with the harvest.Her agronorma N + P + K (total removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium with a yield of 1.5 kg per 1 m2 of landings) is for the entire season, all 18 g 1 m2.The balance between these elements N: P: K in a percentage equal to 44: 17: 39.That is, strawberry refers to a group of plants, especially phosphorus-loving.I remind you that the average balance for the group fosforolyubov 36: 20: 44 and this group includes all plants that are carried out of the soil not less than 17 grams of pure phosphorus from each square meter per season.Therefore, before planting strawberries in each well should be made 1 h. Spoon of double granulated superphosphate, if you do not make AVA fertilizer.

Care

leaf growth at the strawberry takes place in two waves.The first regrowth of leaves begins in early spring and lasts about 60-70 days, until the fruiting (in the north-west the whole of May and June).After fruiting, the leaves turn red, become damaged and eventually die.It is recommended to remove immediately after fruiting and even partially removed during the fruiting to improve lighting and air exchange.

second regrowth of leaves begins immediately after fruiting.New leaves and leave for the winter, if the stored until spring in the snow, then the harvest will be good.If the leaves do not spend the winter under snow or other shelter, they tend to die that retards fruiting until new leaves grow back.Flowering period from strawberries stretched for almost a month (in the north-west main flowering occurs from mid-May to mid-June).

Typical disease

most unpleasant disease - gray mold.The spores of the fungus - pathogen live on the soil surface and plant debris.By the time the first disputes berries ripen, scatter in all directions, or rinsed off with water, spreading on a fairly large area.Getting on the berries, they cause their disease.Disease manifests as a gray deposit, under which the berries rot.

affected botrytis berries can not be put in the compost, as it happens infected with spores of the fungus botrytis.They should be instilled in a specially designated place.When collecting berries infected berries should be put in a separate container.Of the patients berries should not do winter harvesting, but the wine of them can do, pre-cut all the rotten part of the berries.

During wet weather, especially rain and cold, the disease progresses rapidly and can ruin a substantial part of the harvest.Gray mold affects not only strawberries and other berry crops, for example, currants, grapes, it goes even vegetables.Apart from strawberry berries may be affected gray rot the stem, flowers and even buds.Especially strongly contribute to the appearance of botrytis poor ventilation plants for planting thickened, the location of the strawberry in the lowlands, as well as an excess of nitrogen in the soil organic matter or excessive introduction of urea.Preparations biological origin "Fitosgyurin" or "Phyto-plus" helps to preserve the harvest.Berries should be removed in a timely manner, about a day, not allowing them to become overripe on the bushes.

Note

Once finished flowering, you need to make the treatment "fitosporin" Then repeat the process at the moment of the first large, still green ovaries, probably you would have noticed that sometimes green berries suddenly appear brown spots?This is the gray mold.Once seen similar spots on the berries, once watered the bushes "fitosporin".By the way, this drug will protect strawberries from other fungal diseases: white blotch and brown leaf spot."Fitosporin" not a chemical drug.It is non-toxic.It simply gumot (i.e., organic fertilizer) embedded with live bacteria.It lives in the soil bacterium.It is a predator and destroys virtually all pathogens of fungal and bacterial diseases.Special preservative keeps the bacteria in hibernation at temperatures from -20 to +40 degrees.While the concentration of preservative is sufficient, the bacterium incapacitated, but as soon as it is placed in an aqueous environment with low concentration of preservative, it is activated and begins to destroy pathogens of many diseases.

Two other common fungal diseases of strawberries - a white and brown leaf spot.Usually, the disease manifested at the end of the summer.White Spot - in the form of red spots with white spots on the leaves.Brown - as a red-brown spots on the leaves to dry up the edges.Affected leaves appear to be dried out, they are the black dots are visible.Diseases tend to affect aging leaves.The spores of these fungi overwinter on leaves of wild strawberry and on the soil surface.That is why in the beginning of autumn should be watered planting strawberries "fitosporin" further.And be sure to make spraying in the early spring.

recently created another very effective medicine against all diseases (and even viral!).It is called "Zircon".This is not a chemical.It is a mix of hydroxycinnamic acids, which are the immune system of any plant produces for its defense against pathogens.But if for any reason, the immune system produces insufficient amounts of, the plants longer resist diseases.Sprinkling plants "Cubic Zirconia", we fill this deficiency.The leaves absorb the drug, it is included in the biochemical processes and the plant easily resists diseases.If "fitosporin" or "zircon" you do not, use the 1% solution of liquid Bordeaux (1 hr. Spoon on half a liter of water) The same solution can be used for the treatment of planting strawberries against gray mold immediately after harvest (orimmediately after cutting the leaves, if you mow them).Again, in the early spring.

Unfortunately, strawberries affected mycoplasma and viral diseases that are manifested in the form of decay of all the bush, or the appearance of a mosaic on the leaves, or the appearance of a yellow-green flowers.Plants are dwarf, often have curly top.Leaves on short petioles are small and take an irregular shape.Sucking insects carry disease from one plant to another and can infect the entire plantation in a single season

chemical or biological means of combating these diseases does not exist yet, so diseased plants should be immediately dig out with roots and burn.Excavated plants can not be put in the compost.In place of the plant should not be dug to transplant seedlings of strawberries, it is better to plant in the wells of marigolds or any other colors for 3-4 years.You can of course change the soil, that is, dig a sick plant, together with a large lump of earth and send it all into the fire.And this is the place to bring the fresh soil of rotted compost.Then it is possible and strawberries planted in the same place.

Main pests

most dangerous among them - the nematode.It is small (no more than 1 mm), thread-like, completely transparent worm, so it's not visible to the naked eye.There are many nematode species.Strawberries inhabit two kinds: stem nematode and strawberry.Nematodes feed on sap and plant tissues, destroying them, which causes deformation and even death strawberries.Yield is reduced by half.

nematode infests leaves with petioles and flower stalks.Leaf blades are bent, shortened petioles, they appear thickened.Plants are dwarf and die within 2-3 years.With nematode infected plants can not take a mustache, as they are also infected with a threat.Strawberry nematode usually inhabits buds, flowers and berries, causing them to warp.Most often it is shown on the berries the second and third charges.If a strong settlement pest of strawberry bushes are similar to tie a head of cauliflower.Petioles are short, thick mustache, flowers, ugly, dirty green, twisted leaves.Ripe berries on the bushes of twisted and totally tasteless.