Growing apples and pears on shtambo- and skeletoobrazovatelyah
Save fruit trees from destruction in the harsh winters can graft them on shtambo- and skeletoobrazovateli.Variety used as shtambo- and skeletoobrazovatelya should be winter-hardy and vigorous and with strong skeleton crown: that would withstand heavy loads harvest, and have good compatibility with the scion.All these requirements for the apple variety Sharopay responsible, and for pears - Theme.
as rootstock for growing shtambo- skeletoobrazovatelya and to make better use of the apple seedlings Antonovka common.This seedling budding (in summer) or the handle (spring) grafted cultivar Sharopay.Once the floor is
Chen Odnoletkov grafted Sharopaem, at a height of 110-130 cm instill the desired grade, and in the future crown is formed from graft cuttings.To increase the hardiness shtamboobrazovatelya appearing on trunks shoots the first two or three years, it is not necessary
cut and pinch just above the fifth-sixth sheet and only after two or three years of fruiting cut on the ring.
skeletoobrazovatel How do I get?
For skeletoobrazovate middle grades can pereprivivat crown skeleton Sharopay two ways.At the same age in this class as well as in the preparation of shtamboobrazovatelya, grafted sapling at a height of 110-130 cm desired grade.That same year, below the grafted cuttings from the kidneys appear shoots, forming a crown, which pereprivivayut next year.On dvuletke Sharopay grade the next year after planting pereprivivayut as an escape continuation and all skeletal branches (three or four) at a distance of 30-50 cm from the center conductor of the barrel, the top flight.To impart better handle with six buds, growth in the first year will be less than the ultimate bud quickly place
it possible, and the tree is better prepared for winter.Increasing the number of kidney on the handle helps to increase productivity.
Unvaccinated sprouts on trunks skeletoo-photoelectret not need to be removed in the early years.Cut out only the so-called competitors, t. E. The shoots originating below the shoot continued with an angle of divergence of less than 40 °, the rest are pruned, pinch, bend down, and only after two or three years of fruiting carved on the ring.Pears on shtambo- skeletoobrazovatele and grown in a similar manner.
Apple on dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstock
- skorollodnost, on the second or third year they bear fruit;
- good yields and high quality of the fruit;
- low volume Krona and ease of care.
• Growing apples and pears on skeleto- and shtamboobrazovatelyah
But there is a drawback - it is short-lived tree, weak root system, so the sensitivity of the dwarfs to drought, increased power requirements.Nevertheless, the dwarfs are in great demand, especially for those areas where a high level of ground water, and the usual trees on rootstock seed does not grow.
Dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks propagated vegetatively, usually by cuttings in green.But small amounts can they get woody cuttings and layering.
Michurinsk agrouniversiteta (now MichGAU), led by Professor NG
Zhuchkova following clonal rootstocks were obtained: Average height - 57-233, 57-490;semi-dwarf - 54-118, 57-545, 58-238, 60-164.62-223, 71-3-150, 67-5 (32);dwarf - 57-257, 57-476, 60-160, 62-396, 57-366, 57-491, Kid Budagovsky, Paradizka Budagovsky.
On rootstock grafted sapling cultural apple varieties.Use different ways to vaccination: kopulirovku, budding, in splitting, etc. is formed as usual...Sometimes dwarf used to insert the scion, is grafted onto the rootstock seed.In this box is instilled then the desired grade.Such seedlings insert more durable, since the root system and the base of the trunk of their seed stocks.
Bushes on trunks
Gooseberries, currants;roses and many ornamental shrubs with weeping branches can grow on trunks.Gooseberries and currants, for example, grafted onto shtamb golden currant.
rootstock seedlings, cuttings or rooted cuttings golden currants are planted in the garden in autumn or spring, and grow one stem, periodically prischipyvaya lateral branching, so they do not grow in length, and only fueled the inner barrel.In the second half of July or early August, when the bark is well separated, make vaccination handle, pre-clearing the stock inner barrel in the site of implantation of the side shoots.This work is carried out in early July.
best way to summer grafting gooseberry is considered to be the side of the bark grafting.On matured shoots gooseberry cut leaf blades and spikes, leaving only the leaf stalks.Cut stalk with 4-5 buds and make it flat oblique cut length of 3-4 cm in such a way that on the opposite side of the kidney was approximately one-third from the top edge of the cut.
On the rootstock at a height of about 50 cm make the T-shaped incision, as in budding.Above the cross section crust cut crescent-shaped, so that it does not interfere with its tight fit for rootstock cuttings.Then stalk slid under the bark, hard obvjaza
off and coated with a garden pitch.For the winter is better shtamb grafted bend to the ground.
spring rootstock straighten, tied to a peg, and pruned, leaving the spike length of 15-20 cm. The buds on the upper half of the spines pluck, and in the lower left to spinule not dried up along with the grafted cuttings.Escape from them, as well as branching into bole summer regularly pinch.When the shoots are grafted on the handle made of 8-10 cm, pinch out to create their crown.In August spike cut, leaving only the branch graft.