Its not for nothing called "northern grapes" because he did what the grape is not inferior to its medicinal properties and utility, except in taste qualities.Gooseberry was known in Russia in the XI century.The royal gardens in the XII-XIV it was grown in Moscow in large quantities.Berry, this has been so popular that a special plantation on the site which is now located Bersenevskaya embankment and Bersenevsky lane was laid.Their names preserved the ancient name of gooseberry fruit - "Bersen".And only in the XVI century, gooseberry began to grow, first in Europe and then two centuries later still in North America.So gooseberries - true Russian berry.
Many gooseberry underestimate and consider it almost a knockdown berry.And for good reason.It's just a storehouse of various vitamins.In addition, gooseberries have a pronounced choleretic and diuretic properties.It is used for pain and rezyah in the stomach with diarrhea and constipation, as it normalizes the gastrointestinal tract.Gooseberry is useful in
gooseberry advantages are its simplicity, endurance, early appearance of fruit, productivity, durability.
It grows well in almost all areas, including the North-West.In contrast, black currants, gooseberries, some varieties less winter-hardy, and the gains of the current year, that is, the ends of young branches can freeze solid to the level of snow at temperatures below 33 degrees Celsius, although the krona gooseberry usually withstand temperatures down to 40 degrees.
are unfavorable winter thaws followed by frosts without snow.The roots can freeze in such conditions even at temperatures below 3-5 degrees Celsius.Usually, however, the root system can withstand up to 20 degrees below zero.Flower buds, like black currant, endure extreme cold - 35 degrees - without damage to buds - only -6, flowers - only 3, and the young ovary - only -2 degrees.So the whole crop can be lost when strong spring frosts.
Sometimes gooseberries mulch in the fall to protect its root system from destruction in the frosty, snow-free winters, as well as against overwintering pests under bushes.But in the spring mulch should definitely from bush otgresti, firstly, that in the mulch layer is not formed additional roots that next winter will still be lost, as the plant will spend in vain for them strength, and secondly, to have died under a bush wintering pests.
Why does not like gooseberries? He does not like stagnant water, excessive waterlogging, highly acidic soils.It prefers to grow in the sun, but tolerates a little shade.He does not like the neighborhood of black currant, but it is reconciled as raspberry, with apple trees, but it can be planted no closer than 1,5-2 m from these trees.It is friendly to the neighborhood and gooseberry redcurrant.
Houghton ancient variety has dark red berries, but, unfortunately, small.It must be mandatory, because without the berries you will not be under any weather conditions.
Grade Green bottle has a medium taste, but very large berries with a long "neck" like a bottle.From his green berries, which have not yet formed the seeds, cook amazingly tasty, "royal", jam.
There are two varieties of the ancient medium ripening - Russian Russian red and yellow.High - with arched branches of the bushes is very productive, and most importantly, not affected with powdery mildew.
There are two good old varieties - English English yellow and green, which are little striking powdery mildew, but both varieties hardy enough and often freeze slightly frosty winter above the snow cover.Bushes are easily reduced, but yields in this turns low.But excellent palatability.
Approximately the same behaved and ancient variety of dates with amber berries in a mature form.Early and sweet variety that kids love.
From a relatively new varieties resistant to powdery mildew are different all have black or dark purple color of berries.
Michurinsky grade Black Negus - a huge, rambling shrub that virtually nothing is never ill.In addition, it has good winter hardiness and good resistance to late spring frosts, and because giving annually stable high yield of berries, with fine, soft skin, suitable for cooking jam in the mature form.They make wine and grape compote wonderful flavor and beautiful color.The only drawback is its large varieties of prickly.
Sandpiper is too high, but a compact bush, very prickly.Color from almost black berries, taste great.The variety is resistant to pests and diseases, in particular, does not suffer from powdery mildew.
African - resistant to disease grade.Its branches are covered with thin vertical black berries good taste.A significant advantage of the variety - he has almost no thorns.
Isabella has a huge bush.Grade average period of ripening, small okolyuchen.Berries have a color and flavor Isabella grapes.variety is not susceptible to disease powdery mildew.
One of the earliest grades - Seedling Lefort, has a low spherical bush and small thorns.Berries oval, the mature form of a red color, and before maturation have good taste.Variety winter hardy and little prone to powdery mildew disease.
Krasnoslavyansky variety has high winter hardiness, medium spiny, excellent taste, but in the North-West is affected with powdery mildew.Grade average period of ripening, yield, with elegant, large, round crimson berries.
Former Swedish-Finnish Olavi grade (Henomaynen Pulaynen) has average taste berries.Variety winter hardy, little affected by powdery mildew, sredneokolyuchenny, but requires constant supervision, as quickly decays when thickening.
Malachite has a sour berry bright green color with a slight waxy coating.Very fruitful.
Grade Moscow red differs unusually tasty berries dark red color.But the variety resistant to powdery mildew.Sort rare.His immediately recognizable by certain features.The only variety that raises the leaves up, showing the wrong side of the sheet.Okolyuchen to moderate.
of yellow varieties have a pretty disease resistant varieties: Radiant and ladies fingers - very late variety.
There is an interesting variety - Plum - with berries, whose skin is dark, and the flesh, like a plum, soft, fleshy, yellow.Scrub slabookolyuchenny.
Grade Early pink delicious, but unproductive fodder and resistant to powdery mildew.
Grade Spring has berries green variety is resistant to powdery mildew, slaboshipovaty.
Eaglet - maloshipy, purple, mediocre taste of the berries.
By besshipym class includes Class Captain with berries almost black, a mediocre taste, but they do amazing taste jam.The variety has a high yield.Another besshipy grade - this gingerbread man.
Grade Leningradets interesting purple berries pretty good taste.
Grade Baltic, with berries of green color, has an extremely high yield.
Variety Salute attractive resistant to powdery mildew.
One of the most recent and large-fruited varieties - Goliath (Green date), with red berries, unfortunately, greatly affected with powdery mildew.
Nesluhovsky very early variety, tasty, one of the largest, with berries in a pink barrel, is not affected by powdery mildew, but unfortunately, freezes.
gooseberry hybrid with black currant Jost (established in Germany), or a similar hybrid Crom (Sweden) or Jochen (Bulgaria), are not affected by powdery mildew, and this is its only advantage.He not only freeze slightly flower buds, and shoots as long autumn continues its growth.Fruiting weak, taste quality berries mediocre, aroma and taste of blackcurrant hybrid is not inherited.In my opinion - is the brainchild of a failed breeders.
If you are tired to maintain a regular war against powdery mildew, constantly plaguing your gooseberries, then please create varieties that this scourge is not exposed, namely, a simple and small, but very reliable and delicious variety Houghton or black varietiesNegus, African and others.Of the latter, you can cook excellent jam, compotes prepare or make a first-class wine.
gooseberries are planted in the autumn, it is best in September.Before planting, the roots should be lowered into the water for 2-3 hours so that they were filled with the moisture.If there is an opportunity to add to the water "Kornevin", which promotes root formation.Dig a pit the size of 50 x 50 cm, a depth of at least 40 cm. The pit is filled to half the height of a mixture of soil excavated from the pit and a well-rotted compost, which will take at least 8-10 kg per pit.Add half a cup in the hole double granulated superphosphate, and two cups of ash.Other fertilizers contribute to the fall should not, as the autumn rains and winter thaws they wash into the lower layers of the soil.When planting the roots straighten carefully on a small hill which make the center of the pit.
Gooseberries can be planted vertically, but it is better to put it obliquely to quickly go out of the ground zero escapes.Gooseberry is able to provide additional roots, so when planting root collar bury for 3-5 cm. Then the hole is filled completely with soil, which is dug out of the pit, and well watered.
When the earth settles, pour it further.Critically, you can take the recommendations trample down the soil around the seedlings after planting.There is no better way to fill the voids in the soil root zone than irrigation, and trampling leads only to the fact that the roots of the air flow will be bad, and that the initial period of the healing plants is not desirable, so we will do without trampling.After watering, which is done in several stages, zamulchirovat soil surface under a bush any dry ground layer of about 7-8 cm.
Formation and pruning
After landing or before planting the bush need to be shortened, cut off the ends of the branches, no matter howI was sorry for them.Leave on each branch should be no more than 3-4 of the kidneys above the ground and about the same number should be in the soil.Such severe pruning at planting contributes to the formation of lateral shoots at the base of the bush and good, and most importantly, quickly and correctly, the formation of the plants.
In the future, much depends on the timely and proper pruning bushes.Spurs (fruit buds) in gooseberry live a long time, about 8 years old, but the fruit they will only if there is a good growth (it is considered to be bad, if it reaches the end of the summer only 7-8 cm).Keep an eye on this.The growth is clearly visible - bark at the ends of branches grown lighter.The less new growth, the weaker escape, the more it is necessary to do this pruning branches, falling down on it until the first strong lateral branches with good growth.Apical bud pulls all the nutrients, and if a weak branch (her thin end), it does not form spurs and yield is reduced.Therefore, be sure to shorten the weak shoots.
bush branches only when shortening the shoots of zero, that is, those that grow from the ground.Each new zero escapes necessarily shorten a quarter of its length.Note that the slice was 1 cm above the renal strong, located on the outer side of the branch.Otherwise, shoot, which goes from the kidneys located below the cutoff will grow inside the crown, and it will have to be removed.Zero shoots are pruned in the spring of next year.Pruning is done in March, before the sap flow.Or it can be done in late autumn, when the plant has gone into retirement.But do pruning shortens the middle of summer or early autumn, can not, as it will cause a new increase, but he did not have time to odrevesnet cold and dry.So you just ruin the escape.
If there is no branch of spurs, then it should be removed until the first strong branch (usually the branch from which went to the sterile shoots).If the branch is obsolete, then it ceases to bear fruit, and if it should be cut to ground level, leaving the stump.
In the first 2-3 years of gooseberry usually develops the root system, and the crown is almost not growing.Then, the rapid growth of the aboveground part begins, and there is a lot of shoots.The entire crop of bush feed unable to, so it will be in vain, and thickened the bush to dry.It is better to delete it immediately, especially that.which appears in the center of the bush.All excess shoots are cut at ground level, leaving no stumps, or in stumps left quickly Russell pests and pathogens.Furthermore, it should cut branches lying on the ground.While
are building bush, it is necessary to leave the 3-4 year young zero escape, then gradually over 5 years the plant produced strong 20-25 branches of different ages.From that moment, profuse fruiting.In a well-formed bush in the prime of his strength should always be 20-25 fruit-bearing branches.Planting bushes of gooseberry should be at a distance of 1.5 m from each other.
old, broken, sick and weak branches should be removed every year.Usually branch to 8-9 years of aging, and it turns into fruition.
Later shorten each emerging from the earth to escape a quarter of its length, remove the growth in the middle of the bush, cut superfluous, especially growing into a bush, branches, thin out the bush.Annual growth rates in the fruit-bearing branches are not pruned, because it reduces the yield.They are pruned in early spring only in the event that during the winter they are black, or withered.Ends blacken if they are struck by mildew.Shrink the ends of the branches, if a young pro-growth did not have time before the frost odrevesnet.To prevent this from happening, tweeze the apical bud (uppermost bud on the end of a branch) in early July, to stop the outflow of nutrients to the top.
Older shrubs can rejuvenate the severe pruning.Late autumn carve a third branch in the bush to the ground level.Make 2-3 buckets of compost.This will cause the growth of zero escapes from the soil.Next autumn grown up over the summer shoots zero shorten by one-quarter of their length, and of the old branches, remove another third.Then, on the next fall, remove the rest of the old part of the bush.Cut off at the root once the whole bush with a view to its rejuvenation should not be.However, be aware that there is no rejuvenation does not help too old plants that are more than 30 years.If you will be promptly cut aging branch (usually they age to 10 years), then drastic measures such as the rejuvenation of the bush, is not required.An indicator of aging branch is the cessation of its fruiting.
Remember, gooseberry can not tolerate shading and thickening.He begins to decay, sick and may die.If you throw a gooseberry in the lurch, you lose it.
Gooseberries as red currants can be grown in shtambovoy form.The quality of the stock usually take the golden currant, but which are grafted sapling taken from the fruit-bearing branches gooseberry.This bush comes into bearing at once, but the next year.And it is possible to grow gooseberries and non-grafted, but then it must put vertically to delay the emergence of new land (zero) shoots.Dug into the soil at 3-4 cm and do pruning, leaving just one kidney.From it will escape, in which at the end of the season should be removed (vyschipnut) 4-5 lower kidney.This will be the future shtamb bush.Sam escapes also shortened by a quarter of its length to the next spring went to the side branch.In the future, when they emerge from the soil replacement shoots (shoots zero), they were cut to the ground.Cut off well and all side branches that appear on trunks.Krone bush above the trunk give freely to develop.Conveniently process a bush, do underneath weeding, digging.It looks very elegant, but, alas, the fruits are much smaller than conventional shrub.In addition, the bushes in the form of short-lived shtambovoy.They live and bear fruit until they expire spurs on this single trunk, which is about 8 years old, since the replacement of the zero-shoots do not have.In severe winter freezes above gooseberries level of snow cover, so the bush in the form shtambovoy often freezes.
Feeding and Care
Because gooseberry suction roots lie in the relatively great depth (about 40 cm), it does not need regular watering in dry weather, in contrast to the black currant.