About wise Wolken !
guys accidentally or interestedly reveal this book!Do not rush to return it on the counter.Browse through the pages, look at pictures, and, sure, you're sure to find something interesting, it makes sense to apply to the parent garden site now, while you all have one profession - assistants mom and dad.Delve into reading, you can be independent from the position of his age and inclinations will find simple and original approaches to solving some problems and even garden skonstruiruete tool to simplify certain procedures.And who.He knows, perhaps carried away so that a lifetime bind his fate with the gardening.It is possible that for many will be a revelation even the very existence of the profession gardener.
We had, of course, and you hear the catch phrase that everyone in his life has to grow at least one tree.Planting trees in the solemnities - an ancient custom of many peoples.In different parts of our country you will be oaks and poplars, cedars and larches, pears and nuts associated with historical
Until recently in the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy maintained a tradition - every group of freshmen put on Forest cottage several trees.More than a hundred years, thousands of pregnant and already eminent scientists agronomists consider the case a natural and very important.But came the 70s, and at the behest of the city environmental ignorant monster swallowed the first hectares of forest cottages ...
And if every citizen of our country is not just planted a tree, and the tree yielding fruit!If planting trees on their wedding day, the birth of children and other anniversaries!Imagine the whole country - the garden.Of course, it's a dream.Still, the gardens, though not so great, we have.And in order to, take care of them, we need knowledge.So let's try to learn some of them.
However, the initial professional orientation - is not the only purpose of this book.The fate of the gardens is determined not only by gardeners-Professional-Lamy.Too often, it depends on the people of other professions, such as
designers and builders of new neighborhoods and entire cities, industrial complexes, modern highways.Whatever decision you have made in their place: to keep or to give the knife a bulldozer in your path homestead garden or high-yielding state farm garden, unique, unique collectible landing scientific institution or schoolyard experimental site naturalists?While in most cases there are strong arguments just not in favor of the garden.Considering himself creators of such "experts" destroy arduous, great creation of the soul and human hands.I do not remember - or know - that from ancient times to the garden of judge of the host, and for the development of horticulture - the state.
Gardener - one of the most laborious occupations.
We must know exactly what to gather the fruits of the tree, how to choose the best of them, how to store them carefully winter months, making sure the temperature and humidity in the spring to plant and how to finally wait for good seedling with good roots.And then swaddle him that caught the eye of interesting varieties, more than once to wander around the plant to create a slender tree with a strong crown.Finally, plant a garden, and come to him one day in the spring at the time of Blanker riot.
Gardener - one of the most dramatic professions.
sweep thundercloud, -prostuchit within half an hour of ice shot - and all the efforts gardener will be blended with the ground.One frosty morning in May - and a cloud of lace bloomed white with pink flowers settles gray fog, and light of hope will turn into a spring garden empty shell.Week of strong frosts in December bessnezhe or too sunny days in February - and hundreds of thousands of acres with trees turn into an epic battlefield.
Gardener - one of the happiest professions.
labor Fruits Grower do .schastlivymi, was escorted into the days of special events and celebrations, return lost health.
Is not it so?Is not there every one of you at least one pleasant memory of my grandmother's apple garden, where you yourself have had to work hard on the tall pear-savage encountered in the campaign with an unusually tasty (as you then seemed) the fruits of a strawberry field and thickets of raspberrymixed with nettles, and finally brought about the mom and dad in the summer camp oranges and bananas? ..
no doubt be pleased if this book umyozhit including the activities of gardeners professionals.But even if you elect a different path in your power suddenly turns, the fate of a garden, remember that read here.About how many generations of scientists and national breeders have dedicated their lives to eliminate grades, pleasing us beautiful fruits.About that, what works is to preserve and grow the seeds of these seedlings.About how long way to maturity
garden and how hard life is in his cold, drought, freeze, thaw, .From to diseases and pests, or simply because of human ingratitude and mismanagement.Recall - and stand on the protection of the garden,
After studying at the school of botany, Darwinism, natural, having worked in the garden of his parents, many of you have learned about the existence of different varieties of apple, cherry, apricot, grapes and other fruit trees.And maybe, one day, be happy eating the rosy, as they say in fairy tales, apple or plum fragrant, some people wanted to choose a seed or seeds and plant them to grow the tree with the same wonderful fruit.
selected, planted in the garden in a clean, loose, moist soil.And what?It takes a month, and the other - do not germinate any seeds or pits.Can all the abyss.And it happens in the land prolezhat whole summer, and forget about them already.But next spring - please you, germ-stalk, so a cheerful.It turns out that something prevented fresh seed germinate even in wet soil.It turns out that in the tissues of the seed contains a special substance, which in natural conditions hamper active germ activity.Do not rush to think that this is very bad.Can you imagine what would happen if the forest from seeds ripened and fallen apples were tender shoots in the autumn.That's right, they would have killed the first frost.That's adapted plant, identifying the fetus job germinate only after hibernation.
Under the influence of the change of low positive temperatures and high humidity to soften the seed coating fabric, change and growth inhibitory substances.Only after that the germ awakened under favorable environmental conditions, the germ appears.Here on it and the leaves turned green.Here branches grew.Autumn came, circled leaves.Spring came.Growing tree, more and more new branches are formed, but sloppy kakiz something prickly.Five to ten years will pass until the bloom wait.And in the autumn - where are the apples, so when something like, of which the seeds sown?There are worse taste, to eat better, but none like the original.How, then, get mnogogektarnye gardens of trees of the same apples, pears, peaches, cherries?
Grow large number of trees, some well-defined varieties - is not easy and speedy.Grown in a specialized nurseries.Work here is very knowledgeable, hard-working, patient, caring, loving people in their cause.Many of them have grown more than one hundred thousand fruit trees.Flower and fruit they state farm gardens or on plots gardeners across the country.
Work master Nurserymen accuracy of execution, creative content is close to the jeweler's work, but even more difficult, as a sort of living plant cutting is exposed, serving as a basis for a future tree.
farm extensive and diverse in the nursery.There is a garden where trees grow to be breeding cultivars.It is called the utero-Cherenkov.Here adult plants cherish the "cultural" quality varieties.There is a garden where they grow trees, from which the harvest and harvest seeds.It is called the utero-seed.There is a garden - liquor clonal rootstocks.Here branches of trees grown hilling soil, take root, and they give rise to an independent plants.They are separated and then used as a rootstock to create a fruit tree planting on their desired grade.Mandatory requirement for all these plantings - absolute health and an absolute guarantee for a particular class.
available in the field nursery where the seedlings are grown, okulyanty, single and dvuletki, there is also a built-room for winter grafting, seed stratification storage rootstocks, cuttings, hotbeds for breeding stocks, greenhouses for the intensive cultivation of seedlings in containers and so on.. n
you may ask: why all this is necessary?You can probably take the branch of the pleasant variety and put in a bottle of water as willow or poplar.There will be roots - are planted in the garden.Well, almost, and receives, for example, with many varieties of cherries (Vladimir, Agate, Zagorevskaya), plums (Skorospelka red Memory Timiryazev), pears (Fancy Efimova) and even some varieties of apple trees, but not all.And rooting spend, of course, not in bottles, but in greenhouses with fogging unit.At the same time rooting of the plants are treated with special growth substances that promote root formation.But then again, not all breeds and varieties.
However, fogging plant growth substances appeared at Nurserymen not so long ago.But what there were before?Let's imagine: some ancient, ancient Roman or Egyptian or Chinese had unsuccessfully tried to wait for the formation of roots at the branches of his favorite apple or walnut or mandarin.And suddenly - eureka!If the branch is not able to grow its roots, you can try to "put" it to someone else!I found a sapling of apple trees (walnut, tangerine).Cut off his last year's branch and replace it the same, but cut from the tree of the desired variety.Stuck.Gradually, the experimenter removed the old all the other branches of the host tree and formed the entire crown of the caught on branches.And he called the plant, which "provided" roots, rootstock and grafted part - scion.Many generations of gardeners all over the world have perfected this technique, but until today it has reached in its original form - with the obligatory presence of at least two components: the stock and scion.Components may be several: shtamboobrazovatel, skeletoobrazovatel, intermediate, or intercalary, stock, and then sort.But more on that later.
As for the scion, then and today, the search for a better option: when and what to take as a graft - still growing green sprout with leaves in summer, the same escape, but at the end of the summer, wintered last year's growth, or one kidney with a shield -a small part of the bark and stem wood or cutting - of the stalk with 2-3 buds;when and how to cut the store.The diverse and original ways of combining the scion with the stock, materials for binding, instruments for the operation.No less difficult is the case with the stock.To him impose a number of requirements: a powerful ramified root system, compatibility (good fusion with the scion) slaboroslyh providing wood compact shape of the crown, winter hardiness, resistance to pathogens.If that seed stock, it should not form undergrowth if it propagated vegetatively, it should have a high reproduction rate.