Feet - chickpeas

June 02, 2016 23:01 | General Information About Plants

From the seeds is not any apple can get a stock that meets these requirements.After a lot of experiments have revealed that at the moment sufficiently homogeneous seedlings for rootstocks of apple, for example, in the Non-chernozem zone are obtained from apples Antonovka ordinary seeds, harvested in matoch-but-seed garden, which is planted as a pollinator variety Anise.Very good rootstock material is obtained from the seeds of apple-kitaek with neopadayuschey cup, cherry varieties Shubinka, Lubsko, Rastunya, plums - Skorospelka red, Greengage the farm.

To get the seeds to germinate in time and drulsno, they are subjected to stratification.The washed after removal from apples and pears dried seeds stored until January.In January, during their three days soaked in water daily updated.Then mixed with scalded sawdust or calcined river sand, pour in boxes (thickness less than 25 cm) and kept in cold storage at a temperature of 2 "C. Systematically substrate with seeds moisturize, stirred.

These substrates perform their function, but they. not ideal Developing chemical industry is already able to offer to test the new material -. for example, crumb foam or something like that these materials do not become compressed, they do not settle mushrooms, they are light, just separated from the seeds when they areprepared for sowing. It would be great if we could do without the substrate, placing the seeds in a container, which automatically, as needed, would be injected into a special solution, and the seeds mixed airflow.

abroad and in our country developed methodschemical, chemical-mechanical, physical and chemical effects on the seeds of fruit crops in order to accelerate germination.

Foot - base of the foot below the ankle, root - root;foot-root - korneosnovanie, rootstock (pun intended).

indisputable priority in this issue of Biological Sciences SA East rail.She found that some natural phenols which have previously been known as inhibitors, may be used as stimulants depending on the concentration of the substance and the condition of the object.To improve seed germination cherries on an industrial scale it is recommended to soak them for a day at 0.05-0.07% solution of gibberellin, dusting drug TMTD and stored in plastic bags at 2-4 ° C.Once every two weeks to humidify water.

especially valuable for breeding seed Svetlana Cherry Adamovna proposed a set of actions that result in seedlings obtained from virtually all available seed.First, all the material is subjected to stratification and germinated.In non-germinated remove solid cover (split and carefully removed), and separate the seeds are placed in a moist chamber.In seeds, which after three days did not give the germs, removes traces of cover and even completely isolate the germ.They were also germinated while in a moist chamber.If and when this "obstinate" embryos germinate, they are placed on filter paper moistened with an aqueous solution of gibberellin preparation (0.01-0.04%).

For three apple seeds is enough content in said substrate and mode, so they began the awakening of the embryo.This point must be very accurately grasp.If the seeds "germinate" they will not be able to sow the seed drill.Therefore, after the period of said seeds apple, pear, quince before planting in a refrigerator with air temperature 0-1 ° C or snow.

Awaken cherry pits, plum, apricot harder.Usually, immediately after separation from the edible portion of a substrate placed in the bone and kept at high humidity and a temperature of 10 C for six weeks.Then, the temperature and humidity is reduced to 4-5 "C, preventing cracking seed mass. Systematically substrate with seeds mixed. Naklevyvaniya As they are transferred to the conditions with a temperature of 0-2 C.

to germinate achenes of strawberries drupes and without pretreatmentraspberry. often, to expedite the preparation of seeds and seed for sowing, in particular for softening their integumentary tissues, seed treated with acids, ie. n.

before loading in the seeder seeds a little weather-beaten, that they have acquired flowability. for various species, in different regionsand various methods of cultivation practiced their seeding rate is very small seeds are sown together with the sand in which they are stratified very strictly kept planting depth: on light soils the seeds of apples and pears are sown at a depth of 2 cm, cherry - 3, plums - 5 centimeters... In the autumn sowing sowing depth is increased by 1-2 cm.

to time shoots appeared and successfully develop, monitor soil moisture and its timely watering.We can not allow the formation on the surface of the soil solid crust.If it is not promptly destroy the seedlings will not be able to break through to the light.Do each other, the extra (weak, curves) to remove the plants no menu.

If signs of starvation or disease lesions spend fertilizing and spraying against the pathogen.Be careful not to develop weeds - a competitor for light, moisture and nutrition.By the autumn it is necessary to grow plants with trunks at least 7 millimeters in diameter.And this can only be achieved with a very good care of the plants in accordance with the weather conditions folding.

autumn seedlings dig, sort of quality, stored and later used as a rootstock material for grafting winter or spring are planted in the field, in order to hold budding summer.

Perhaps you noticed how diverse requirements that only involves business success.Take, for example, watering.How to keep track of, so as not to form a soil crust, so dangerous for delicate seedlings?I thought and thought and came up with: soil cover crops mulch.Beneath it is better to retain moisture, weeds do not grow, does not form a crust, emerging seedlings sprout in the first few days, protected from direct sunlight and from possible frost.To solve the problem of water supply, a film stack hoses with small holes or special "sweating" of the tube through which is constantly replenished supply of moisture in the root zone of the soil.Good.But who knows, maybe one of you will suggest something even more perfect?

When sowing aspire to a uniform distribution of seeds.Still, the seedlings in the garden is densely arranged, it is empty.Where dense, it is necessary to thin out.So, irrational use and seeds, and the soil and materials.To avoid this, you must be confident in the viability of each seed sown, and to ensure that each of them is in exactly the final destination on the bed.Here's another thing you, the young creators of the robots!

as rootstocks of apple, cherry, pear, plums can be used by plants respective breeds, intensive breeding vegetatively.As we have said, these rootstocks should meet even the whole complex of requirements: well combined with most of grafted them grades, to facilitate their early entry into fruition, to ensure the development of a compact crown of sorts (most often used dwarf or Polukarov-faces rootstocks, butvigorous vegetatively propagated rootstocks are of great interest).These plants need to grow fast, have a good root system, so that the resulting trees had a high stability, ie not falling from the wind or the weight of the crop.They should be winter-hardy, drought-resistant, not affected by pests and diseases.

And now there are gardens of apple trees on dwarf rootstocks vegetatively propagated M8 (paradizka VIII), M9 (paradise th

ka IX), semi-dwarf MOH (Dusen III).Plants are tall or shrub 1.1-1.6 meters (paradizka) or tree height from 3 to 8 meters (Dusen) with reduced winter hardiness.

In the Soviet Union vegetatively propagated rootstock for difficult environmental conditions Nonchernozem region engaged Professor VI Budagovsky, SN Stepanov, VA Potapov, PhD BA Popov and NF Seregin.

Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Valentin Budagovsky many years headed the Department of Horticulture and scientific problem laboratory of biology and breeding name Michurin in Michurinsk city Institute of fruit and vegetable and dwarf fruit trees.The scientist of world renown, his entire scientific activities related to the establishment of intensive orchards on dwarf rootstocks, in his final book wrote nevertheless, that we should not oppose the gardens silshrsashh suspensions and slaboroslyh."In our" fruit-must find a place reasonable combination of different forms of fruit trees according to specific conditions. "Having chosen his way, he works his life argued that "culture slaboroslyh fruit trees is the most severe form of intensive fruit growing."However, he also owns the words: "What is recommended now, in a few years may be revised."These words proved prophetic as we already know, are the gardens of so-called columnar trees in recent years.

well known not only in our country rootstock Paradizka krasnolistnyh.Look at the diagram of his origin, and you make sure to get this stock was not a simple matter:

Pepin English

Kitaika

Orleans Reinette

Hybrid (Michurin)

Apple Nedzvetski

Antonovka, ordinary

Pepin saffron (Michurin)

Ruby (Michurin)

red standard (Michurin)

-Paradizka krasnolistnyh (VI Budagovsky)

Continuing crossingalready with the stock Paradizki krasnolistnyh 13-14, VI ​​Budagovsky got more promising rootstocks 54-118, 57-490, 62-396.Thus, semi-dwarf rootstock 54-118 differs sufficiently developed frost-resistant root system, trees to cultivate it does not tilt.This rootstock quickly propagated by layering, well compatible with many varieties.In semi-dwarf rootstock 57-490 root system is strong, frost.Well propagated by layering, well compatible with various

varieties.No worse performance in dwarf rootstocks 62-396, according to the most promising at the moment, and the 57-366.As the dwarf insert recommend 57-491, as well as hybrids obtained SN Stepanov.

conditions for the Baltic withdrawn hardy, good breeding rootstocks E-20, E-28, E-56.Bred in Leningrad NF Seregin rootstock RC-1 is very precocious, with exceptionally high multiplication factor.The unique properties allow the stock for the season to get high quality already grafted cultivars seedlings.Its creation was a different rootstock NF Seregina - Bystretsovsky.Rootstock RC-1 and its breeding technology has high patent ability.

In creating vegetatively propagated significant progress apple rootstocks have in the UK.For example, bred East Mollingskoy Experimental Station and Research Institute, in the semi-dwarf rootstock Merton MM-106 is widely zoned in Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Lithuania, the Caucasus, in some Central Asian republics in the North Caucasus.For Ukraine and Moldova are very approached East mollingsky dwarf rootstock M-26.Widely tested in our country English dwarf rootstock M-27.In Sweden received strong-rootstock A-2, which is currently zoned in the Crimea, Belarus, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Baltic States, quite successfully overwinter in the suburbs.In the Republic of Poland propagated rootstocks P-Series (P-2, P-22, etc.), Which was used in deriving an old Russian variety Antonovka common.Its series rootstocks TE-F is available in Czechoslovakia, and the United States - the MAC-9.

as vegetatively propagated cherry rootstocks used shoots or plants grown from cuttings of green varieties Shubinka, Vladimir, voles.In addition, special bred rootstocks P-3 and P-7 at the Research Institute of Horticulture Nonchernozem zonal band, VP-1 - on Orel Experimental Station.

These plants - brought to life the idea of ​​Michurin: poluchit1 beautiful plants - hybrids between cherry (tserazus) and cherry (Padus).The author of the rootstocks P-3 and P-7 is the candidate of agricultural sciences Anatoly Mikheev.In libraries you can find books written by him on the cherry.And once and himself, a teenage boy, pushed to the path of the construction of new plants and sensible book a good teacher of botany.His first experience - Tradescantia vaccine to a palm tree.Unknowingly, of course.Acquired in the TAA and postgraduate NIZISNP knowledge, hard work, original thinking, irrepressible imagination, improvisation is possible to achieve the desired.In addition to cherry rootstock, adopted zoning rootstock VC-13 for cherries and cherry.

With the introduction of clonal rootstocks in the production practice proved that propagate them is not so simple.I had to look for ways and means to increase the intensity of breeding stocks.A relatively simple and commonly used

degree

preferring

Zone possibility

Pobegoobrazo-

Features

compatibility,

Features

name

dwarf

enforcement rootstock

tion uses

successive spo

root

early appearance of fruit,

aboveground

Notes

bility

or insert

tion

lities, established fi

system

durability

part

renyaemost

Paradizka

Dwarf

Rootstock

South European

Moderate;

well developed with good wood

Trees

Budagovsko-

(good for

parts center

high

branching,

majority

unbreakable; no need

th (red

insert)

Nonchernozem

shallow,

varieties and the fruit

affected

support

sheeted,

zone

fragile,

wearing

scab

PC-9)

hardy

on 2-3rd year

(-14 C)

57-491

»

intermediate

Nonchernozem

same

-

good;

-

tion insert

zone central

early appearance of fruit

ny black soil

high

Fig.