Creators lovely creature
seems, with the stock we understand a little.Let us turn to the second component of a fruit tree - planting.Scion can serve a variety of parts of the plant.If we cut the tree in autumn growth formed over the summer, we get woody cuttings, which can instill in the fall, winter, spring and even early summer.They are well preserved in the refrigerator, basement, and they can be zasnegovat.
Broken growing young shoot and leaves are also divided into sections and plant.Just need to make sure that the kidney Reserve, located in the leaf axils, was not damaged.And you can escape from the shield and prepare.In the classic form of the scion - is the vegetative part of any cultivar.
seems that originally used for scion people accidentally gets his plants, grown from the seeds of natural hybrids.By national selection derived varieties Antonovka apple trees (pine, kamenichka et al.), Anise (gray, red, etc.), Cinnamon striped, White filling, Grushovka Moscow, cherry - Vladimir, Lubsko.Plum - Skorospelka red and man
Several generations were collected and preserved not just productive plants with quite large, delicious, beautiful fruit.A very important criterion for assessing the suitability of the fruit was considered for a particular use.With this approach to the case have been established varieties, exceptionally good just for cooking jam, or drying, or stewed, or for making purees and juices with improved therapeutic properties, etc. Maybe you've heard about Antonovka -.. Frozen andpickled, apples of this variety were unrivaled - and on convoys with "ryazankoy", which served as an export item.From apples of the same variety grown in the gardens around the city Belev, in the Tula region, once cooked candy, which carried a good reputation far beyond the Russian state.By the way, the dignity of varieties Anto
Novki and perry Moscow so diverse and specific, they are so firmly and comprehensively passed on to offspring, that until recently Seeds and seedlings of these varieties were also exported.outstanding in taste Mantet summer variety, which has become very popular in the Soviet Union Moscow Grushovka varieties in Canada was obtained from open pollination.
national selection, selection of the best of what is produced naturally by accident (for example, from seeds obtained from free pollination), has an ancient history, it continues to this day.However, the creation of new varieties has taken a more active form, when the scientists involved in it.They were not simply to select the best of what nature has presented, and to carry out the pollination of flowers of some varieties of pollen taken from the flowers of something released another variety.
Man, first explained the reasons for the diversity of the offspring obtained from the seeds of apples, was Andrey Bolotov, an outstanding Russian scientist, one of the most educated men of his time.Pay attention to the years of his life - 1738-1833.What is the longevity!Half a century has passed after his physical death, but also modern and future generations of breeders will use the idea expressed by them.More than two centuries ago (1778) Bolotov published a short article about the pollination of apple trees, which gave a detailed description of the flower device and emphasized the special importance of pollen: "... And this is very necessary seed dust, scattering falls on the tip of ...pistils and these things is meant to help to ensure that the fruit on the tree sprang up. "Perhaps these lines right now seem naive, but at a time when they were written, has not only the process of fertilization has not been investigated, but also the existence of sex in plants has been questioned.Based on the results of the study of the structure of flowers, the appointment of their constituents and the role of the sexual process Bolotov gave the first description and grouping of various forms of sex in plants, generally accepted to date (dioecious plants monoecious, and so on. D.).Do not think that this is a trifle: planting plants sea buckthorn, currants and strawberries with imperfect type of flower, you do not get the crop, if there will not be pollinating varieties.More than 200 years ago, crossing artificial Bolotov recommended as the most effective method for obtaining new varieties and gave a detailed description of the technology of artificial crossing.In the article "Experience of apple seeds" in 1823 by Andrew T. suggested cross-pollination of the apple and the important role of bees in the process.
decisions about which plants to take as the starting (parent), preceded by a very painstaking analytic work.Firstly, the problem of clearly defined: with any necessary features to receive the plant.Next, gather information about the plants, these features have, and sets them in the genes responsible for the transmission of specific traits are determined by the combination possibilities of selected donor varieties.
honor of the first scientist, who applied the crossing as a method of practical plant breeding, by Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences, contemporary Bolotov Joseph koelreuteria.But his first publication with some of the conclusions of theoretical and practical nature appeared only in 1772 - twelve years after the tests - and only in Russian,
so it works in other countries were unknown.So it happened that when Russia has been practically proved the effectiveness of the crossing as a method of creating new varieties of various crops in Western Europe still arguing about having sex in plants.
first breeders practitioners was not easy.Is not it easier and modern.Despite what has been known lists of donor plants, to study and selection of the corresponding pairs (and often a whole group of varieties) goes up to 30 percent of the time and effort of the breeder, they spent to obtain new varieties.
artificial pollination of flowers by hybridization - a simple matter, but it is necessary to prepare the entire inventory in advance.First of all, it is necessary to sew gauze insulators to protect the flowers before and after pollination by visiting bees and other insects.Their sizes depend on the object.For apple is usually crosslinked gauze "sleeves" in length 35 and width 20 cm, plums and cherries, respectively 70 and 40 centimeters.The "sleeve" threaded branch with buds, and top and bottom holes tied with string.
for collection and storage of pollen needed little washed thoroughly dry glass jars.On the jars should be pre-pasted strips of paper for the label varieties of pollen.To prevent pollen from drying out and falling pollen of other varieties of the jar should be closed on top with a cotton or gauze swab.For the convenience of the trees jars of pollen can be tied to a thin braid and put on the neck.
to highlight the anthers of buds required tweezers, metal eyelets, which can replace staples, pins, or something similar.
main tool - "pylilka" necessary for the application of the pollen on the stigma.Most are easy to use and economical in spending "pylilki" soft pencil eraser, which should be cut into small pieces of triangular shape (1-0,5 cm).The thick end of the triangle pushed onto the dissecting needle, and "pylilka" ready.Each version of the crossing should be done with a clean, previously used "pylilkoy".
To install the jars with pollen and transfer them during operation need a box or carton.Keep pollen is best in the desiccator (glass vessel with ground cover), which is placed at the bottom of the calcium chloride absorbs moisture.
When working with small stamens and pistils (currants, gooseberries, wild cherry, etc.) May need a magnifying glass (magnifying glass).You will also need the labels, which are tied to the branches with the pollination of flowers.They record the name of the pollinator varieties, dates and other information.All variants of crosses are recorded in a notebook.
Fitted as parent plants not required to have, as they say, is at hand.Pollen from a distance can be obtained or, conversely, sent to another location, where it desired plant pollinate.
pollen transfer and storage technique perfected it enough: pollen poured into paper bags, put them in a glass with a glass cover, which previously put a few granules of calcium chloride.Pollen can be placed in a common tube and clog its cotton plug, in which several wrapped calcium chloride pellets.Jam top pour melted paraffin.At temperatures up to 10 ° C briefly stored pollen.The optimum storage temperature is below -Slightly C ° C.
From hybrid seeds (post-stratification) grow plants which in varying degrees are saved (inherited) a set of signs or symptoms of the individual inherent in the parent plant, and a new form.
Fundamentals of modern genetics laid in 1865 by Gregor Mendel, a monk from the Czech city of Brno.After 35 years, the basic "laws" were newly "discovered" by three scientists - de Vries, Correns, Tschermak, and independently of each other.V1910, the American biologist Thomas Morgan and his students have substantiated the chromosome theory of heredity.In the 20-30-ies a large role in the development of genetics in our country played by N. Vavilov, Koltsov, Chetverikov, Serebrovskii and others.Genetics - the science of the laws of heredity and variation of organisms, their management practices.Its laws allow to anticipate the results of the selection.
At the present stage of development of science breeder can only be prepared by the versatile specialist.First of all it should be a professional biologist who is familiar with the anatomy and physiology of plants.A serious selection work is impossible without profound genetic knowledge.It is also necessary to know the laws of the evolution of species in "nature. Of course, the breeder, the designer must navigate the current and future directions of agricultural techniques and technologies.
hope, it is clear that the stages of the selection process listed above represent only a truncated, very abbreviated schematic diagram of receiving. new varieties Whole schools of scientists in different countries had to work hard to penetrate even to the threshold of the store room, which houses the mystery of inheritance and variability of symptoms, to develop highly sophisticated methods of practical breeding name just some of them:. hybridization, mutagenesis, inbreeding.
hybridization - a crossing of heterogeneous in succession against organisms it remains the primary method There are intraspecific, distant (interspecific, intergeneric) hybridization, re-crossing with a geographically and ecologically distant pairs, etc.
As you probably....remember the school course of biology, is the view of the totality of individuals related by birth and having a qualitative difference from other species.Each species is adapted to the specific conditions of the environment, has a certain area, the plants within a species hybridize well and produce fertile offspring.
intraspecific hybridization has been and remains the main breeding technique.It is used to obtain the specific combination of positive signs to be crossed varieties or hybrid forms.Incidentally, in the horticultural variety is the set of plants vegetatively propagated from the one originally selected plants and possess identical morphological, biological and economic characteristics and properties.
When intraspecific hybridization is often used varieties of folk selection, landraces ,;which are called identified in a particular place plants with specific advantages on any economic grounds.So, all breeders Nechernozemie used in hybridization variety of national selection Cinnamon striped, surpassing many other winter hardiness.With his participation was obtained, for example, in NIZISNP grade Lighthouse (Cinnamon striped Rosemary x white).
In the same institute in recent years is widely used for hybridization is very winter hardy local variety Ivanovo.The history of this variety.To bookmark the collection garden with its fruit nursery organizer Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich (we still talk about it in a different context) gathered hundreds of varieties not only from different research institutions, but also the local population.Thus, in one of the towns then the Moscow region, in the village Zyuzin (now district of Moscow), they are summer varieties of trees were found, apparently maloprimechatelnogo, resembling Papirovka.It would be possible to pass, but the owner of the garden (his name, unfortunately, has not survived) noted that this sort of family tradition in this area, "being" since Ivan the Terrible and expanded it with the shoots from the root.For good ability to reproduce vegetatively and high winter hardiness, allowing the plant to survive to the present day, the local variety of Ivanovo was included in the scientific collection.With developed in subsequent years, a technique of artificial freezing grades high resistance has been confirmed it to all components of hardiness.But the main test was the extreme winter 1978/79 years, after which 540 varieties of apple trees in the garden collector bear fruit only a few among them -Ivanovskoe.Now it is the main donor to the hardiness of apple hybridization.
Breeders, growers widely used method of remote interspecific hybridization to create varieties with combined resistance to the most dangerous diseases.In particular, the Research Institute of breeding and sortorazvedeniya fruit crops (ex Orel zone fruits and berries Experimental Station) breeders EN Sedov and VV Zhdanov displayed several varieties of apple trees, immune to scab by including in the hybridization of the immune type of apple.
In our country, the use of priority crossing geo- graphically
and environmentally remote pairs belong Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin.He, according to Vavilov, first began to mobilize wide across the globe species and varieties for crossing.
fruitful practical use of the method of geographically remote and environmentally pairs is also connected with the name of Professor Sergei Ivanovich Isayev, a pupil and follower of Michurin.
more than a decade (1932-1942) SI Isayev worked in the town of Michurinsk, where the air itself seemed to be imbued with the ideas of Michurin, the memory of it, a kind of tradition, attitude to work.Then until 1949 he headed the Department of selection of fruit and vegetable crops in Saratov SKHY, and since 1949 has worked in the Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov.Much research work culminated in the creation of 33 new apple varieties.Elected as a parent varieties old Russian variety Cinnamon striped and Canadian grade Wells Isaev from the resulting hybrid families identified such well-known varieties as new Cinnamon, Dessert Isayev, Lungwort, Young Naturalist, Korean woman, Autumn Joy.SI Isaev - author of such recognized varieties like Memory Michurina, Northern synaptic, Garden Beauty, People, Winner.The work of the winner of the State Prize, Honored Scientist of the RSFSR SI Isayev awarded with Order of Lenin, the Gold Medal named after IV Michurin.
successfully applied the method of geographically remote and environmentally friendly steam and at the Research Institute of breeding and sortorazvedeniya fruit crops (town Eagle), which are derived with the help of such varieties as Mezenskoe, Orel winter, autumn scarlet, Orlik, Orel striped.
More than thirty-five years has been breeding work on apples and pears correspondent member of Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Academician of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences Evgeny Sedov, and the construction of new varieties are engaged in a group of colleagues - specialists of different profiles, each of which is strictly executes the maneuver, provided the total, the breeding program.They actively use methods ke only hybridization and mutagenesis inbreeding.Each year, through the hands of EN Sedov and his assistants held more than 100 thousand flowers, they estimate up to 40 thousand seedlings.Before his gaze passed over 120 thousand hybrid seedlings.Of these, 26 hybrids of apple and pear 8 hybrids received varietal name and transferred to gossortoispytaniya.Theoretical and practical work EN Sedova awarded two Orders of Red Banner of Labor and a gold medal named after IV Michurin.Why?Hardly.