At the end of the XVII century came to Holland Russian carpenter Peter Mikhailov.He tried to be no different from other artists.He led the most ordinary life - studied vehicular thing went to buy supplies for dinner, and in the absence of the mistress he was preparing a meal.In his spare time he is having fun skating on the ice.While skates each time tied belts to boots.It's boring quickly tired of the carpenter, and he just skates tightly nailed to the soles.
soon began to gather around the carpenter's interesting, but not because of his inventions - on skates, few people paid attention.
The Dutch have been in Russia on business, "identified" in the carpenter of the Russian Tsar Peter I, and spoke about it.Here are some record left in his diary inquisitive Dutchman Jacob Nomen - the character of the novel A. Tolstoy "Peter", "King of not more than a week could live incognito;some were in Muscovy, learned his face.The rumor of this soon spread all over our homeland.On the Amsterdam stock exchange peopl
been more than 150 years, and arrived in St. Petersburg American Jackson Heine, who is considered the father of modern figure skating.He invented a new skate blade and firmly attached to his boot.But when he began to promote his invention, it was dismayed to learn that it is nothing new and the present inventor should still be considered Peter I.
Vintage Japanese and European skating.
What is the age of skates?No, unfortunately, does not give an answer to this question.One can only assume that they were first and foremost where there was a lot of smooth ice while skiing - in those places where a lot of snow.We know one thing for several thousand years ago our ancestors were fond of skating made of ribs or tubular bones of large animals.Normally, the bone sawed lengthwise, polished it and drilled several holes to tie her to the shoe.This is confirmed by excavations archeologists.Skates are stored in the British Museum, which went for a few thousand years ago.For a long time they were regarded as the oldest and reputed birthplace skates England and the Scandinavian countries.But recently, in Kazakhstan it has been found, probably the oldest horses in the world.They are related to the Bronze Age.This highly polished bone of some animal.The toe and the end of the ridge - holes for mounting.
Rink XVIII century.
As time passed, changed the shape of skates, mounting method, the material from which they were made.In XVII-XVIII centuries skates were made of wood, and the bottom and front studded with iron.
And why, actually, "skates"?Why this name?"Skates" - a purely Russian word.It was formed from the word "horse" - the front of the skates are often decorated with a horse head.So it happened name of the object in its decoration - carrying us along small horses.By the way, the word "horse" has another meaning.Skate or princeling, the horse, the prince - the upper edge of the roof ridge.The Russian-built horse top for greater strength coated with a thick hollowed log.It was called "ohlupen" and overlooking the front end thereof is cut out in the form of a horse or bird fighting.
Today skates with a light hand of Peter I is tightly attached to the shoe.Curly - with screws and hockey and cross country - with rivets.
Species skate a lot.For those who are just attached to this sport, suitable "Snow Maiden" - they are stable.If you like speed, you need skates lightweight, with a long thin blade - running.Ice hockey skates are two types: for Russian hockey and ice hockey.At first the blade slightly shorter than that of the cross, and the second - slightly curved.It is not by chance: during a tense, fast games on these skates are easier to maneuver on the ice.Special skates skaters - the front teeth and the blade sharpened groove.
But no matter how convenient or were horses, they can "draw" if the ice would be bad.Masters for the preparation of ice rinks in large call ledovarami.Prepare a good ice - both science and art.This is how, for example, fill the treadmill.They do it, usually at night, when the frost stronger.
Zamboni passed the first round, and then makes a stop in order to form a crust of ice.Then again, in a way, but it does not close.To get a 20-centimeter layer of ice, the car you need to drive in a circle 800 times - 320 kilometers!
ice prepare differently for hockey fields: first field is filled with snow, and then ukatyvayut.And only then pour the water.In addition, the ice "Granit" - planed, sanded, poured hot and cold water.It all depends on the skill and experience ledovarov.After all, it is necessary to take into account the state of the ice, and the temperature of the air, and the presence of precipitation, and much more.
ledovarov work has greatly facilitated the emergence of refrigeration.The first ice rink of artificial ice was built in 1876 by the chillers in the US "Chelsea".By the end of the century ice arenas have got to Paris, London and other cities in the world.
But there is skating, where you can ride, not thinking about the state of the ice.Because it is not needed at all.But need special skates - roller.They, incidentally, is not so young as it seems.They are more than 200 years.The history of public demonstrations and funny, and sad.Invented by skating master of musical instruments.He lived in London.To draw attention to his fiction, he once drove them to the lush masquerade ball, playing the violin, but just could not slow down.As a result ... the violin is broken, broken a huge mirror, and the inventor seriously cut himself.
Strange are sometimes turns in the history of inventions.It would seem that after such a "premiere" the reputation of roller skates permanently undermined.But not long plank with wheels that is attached to a shoe strap, began to conquer the world.From the middle of the last century in Europe and America are building facilities and paved areas for roller skating.Not far behind Europe and Russia.However, the first "rolikobezhtsy" appear only on the trade fair arenas so act variety revue.But on the new skates stood athletes, then ballet artists.Well of them could keep up with the ubiquitous boys, especially if they are "in business"?
Roller Skates XIX century.
on roller skates were worn on the streets of American cities newsboy, innovation and quickly mastered the letter-and couriers - often people ripe old age.In many countries, most of the working day on the rollers began to hold serve airports, weavers serving machines, workers of large assembly plants, tour guides in museums.If you can visit the Louvre - such horses can offer to you.
Modern roller skates.
It soon turned out that the ice skating, rollerblading is not only pleasant but also useful.It promotes the development of coordination, improves the vestibular apparatus.Use rollers can practically everyone, and age is absolutely innocent.To ride on them, keeping a balance, do not need any special training.
But videos are not as harmless as it seems at first glance.For example, in 1978 - the year of the roller boom in America - in hospitals were 93 thousand young men and women with fractures of the arms and legs.And it is thanks to the simple commercials that do not have special funds should be used to increase the speed.And there are a lot of funds.Here are just some of them.
1906.France.In one of the Parisian parks tested motorized roller skates.Each horse had a tiny single-cylinder gasoline engine with the fuel tank and battery.
1915.USA.Invented wheel skates that move by a small electric motor, and the battery is attached to a wide belt.
1980.Germany.Improved motorized skates, they became a miniature motor, controlled by using a special drive.
1983.France.On asphalt roller skate wheels youth.In the hands of his fans.Thrust is that carries forward person.
More recently, American skating became "a board on wheels."Riding on it requires a lot of courage and skill.Maybe that's why she has quickly gained popularity among young people around the world?According to the new sport has competitions on the pavements and paved areas can often see children, deftly balancing on fast racing boards on wheels - skateboards ...
Do you know?
Who is the author of these lines, and the name of the poem?