Tops and Roots Union
With rootstock and scion, you can proceed to the construction of the seedling.But before still need to purchase and prepare a tool, specific materials, including the binder, - in fact whatever way nor were combined components of vaccines, careful tying the junction of the rootstock and scion, provides a solid contact surface sections and the best of fusion and prevents them from drying out, waterlogging, dust and other unfavorable factors.It has long been in Russia (and not only), the main and almost the only material for this is fake bast.
Technology producing bast good not name.First, choose a young linden tree with fewer branches on the trunk, cut them during the sap flow, and immediately removed from their bark.In special drenched kept the bark for 70-90 days and then separated bast fiber (bast) from the bark, dried.The work time-consuming, and most importantly - to cut down basswood, which for its high quality honey people do not accidentally called the queen bee plants.Only one blooming linden can
way as tying material Bast far from perfect, particularly due to poor elasticity, and used only where there is growing linden.Elsewhere used cotton ribbons, yarn, raffia (seaweed) and the like material, which was more expensive and had the same disadvantages.For a long time there was nothing to replace the old grandfather strapping method.
In 1945-1946 in our country were imported from the US samples of narrow skimpy rubber strips that were used there for vaccinations.But for the production of natural rubber is needed, and it was not enough for the more important objects of the national economy recovery in post-war years.
Many scholars and practitioners, including the RSFSR and honored agronomist Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich, set out to find a new strapping material from the chemical polymers, which release
adjusted their in the early 50s.For 6 years he persistently and meticulously tested various film: polyamide (perfol), nylon, Teflon-4 and others, but they turned out to be far from perfect.Once in the hands of the scientist got elastic compress oilcloth bought at the pharmacy.Narrow strip, cut out of it, turned out to be a perfect binder material.It was a PVC film that literally revolutionized the horticulture and has been successfully used so far.It is easily stretches for 30-40 percent of its original length, thereby driving up the bark is well addictive, tightly clutching a guard to him, and not to crash, as urine, as thickening of the trunk on, thereby eliminating the need for re-piping.Soft gentle strip not cut hands obvyazchits, tied lighter "and much faster.The film does not pass any air or water, while maintaining the viability of buds.Its application significantly reduce the cost of budding and grafting, the seedlings increase output to 30 per cent, across the country amounted to millions of apples, cherries, plums and other fruit crops grown using vaccination.
Only time did not allow Vladimir Fedorovich Efimov already prepared to defend his thesis, to among older and middle generations of gardeners country he pattern of a harmonious combination of theorist and practitioner Nursery.His working life began at thirteen years old;It wanted to study, but it means it was not in a large family.It was possible only to enter the school of practical gardening near St. Petersburg.Students are not only acquire knowledge, but also to earn a living.Thirst for knowledge has led to the workers' school, and then in the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy.In the pre-war years and after the war very mnog of attention to the organization of the domestic gardening, studied himself, preparing specialists nurserymen.Created collectible garden of 880 accessions.Developed a new agricultural methods for nurseries Non-chernozem zone, allowing several times to increase the quantity and quality of seedlings.He was awarded the gold and silver medals of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition.But the main reward for their hard work - Russia Gardens of seedlings grown Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich and his disciples.
Over the years, domestic and foreign horticultural history, developed a large number of ways scion grafting onto rootstock.The main and still remains budding summer.The most important condition for its successful realization - intensive sap flow, good separation of bark from the wood, the high activity of the cambium rootstock, scion sufficient aging tissues.
Planted in the spring, well-groomed, well-developed (shtambika diameter at the base of 7-12 mm) rootstocks advance watered.This helps to improve sap flow and separating the bark of the stock.The work is best done in the early morning and evening hours when it is cloudy.Just before budding shtambik rootstock wipe with a damp cloth to remove adhering soil.budding technology consists of the following 32
processes.Pick up the scion sapling (it is desirable that the diameter of it does not exceed the stock) cut well developed kidney with a shield.At a height of 5-8 cm on the rootstock is usually on the north side incision is made in the form of a letter T with a rounded top and slightly pushing the bark.In the crack insert plate with kidney and slightly pressed around him and tied the bark of the stock film.In recent years, it proved an advantage budding vpriklad way.
After 12-14 days for apples and pears, stone fruits 20-25 days to inspect species survival, weaken the harness and at the end of the growing season it generally removed.
When budding method described, for example, cherries often have failed, although at first it seemed that the graft take root.Determine the reasons for the low yield of cherry seedlings is now in the distant 50th year;Candidate of Agricultural Sciences took Euphemia Petrovna Kuzheleva.With his students, it is theoretically substantiated and confirmed in practice, the need for early budding cherry until nighttime there were still fatal.That's it from the set kitaek selected shapes with high compatibility and is easily propagated by cuttings green.His agronomic research activities EP Kuzheleva begins under the direction of prominent Soviet scientist doctor of agricultural sciences Peter Genrikhovich Mina.Throughout his life Euphemia Petrovna is an example of selfless service to the domestic gardening.
for summer budding apple stalk try to choose a well-matured kidneys.Just arrived and stone fruit, and, as it turned out, in vain.The buds on the shoots of cherry and apple trees behave differently: they are the apple of Rostov, while the cherries in the bulk of the kidney shaped seeds of future flowers.The closer to the fall, the more of these kidneys to escape.Taken as an eye for the budding, they take root, but the escape from them grows.The solution was found is this: spend budding spring buds, taken from the growing shoots where the kidneys have not yet begun to differentiate, or to use mainly apical buds that remain Rostov.It would seem that everything is simple.Not really.The fact is that after two weeks, until the kidney graft take root, we must harness and weak, even after five days to remove it at all, and after 7-10 days the whole upper part of the stock that over grafted kidney, cut on the kidney.Usually at this time the buds begin to sprout.Of these, in the same year shoots grow up to 70 santymetrov, koto rye time to prepare well for the winter.
The state farm nursery is necessary spring grafting cuttings.In the amateur gardens, this technique is used much more frequently than budding.
Vaccination handle is used not only to produce seedlings cultivar, but also to replace a failed grade, creating a tree, garden, tree bug fixes, restore damaged (rodents or frost) plants, and so on. D. Ways to handle vaccinations very much.
I - preparation of cuttings for inoculation (a - cut from the tree escape, b -
after removal of leaves);
I!- Kidney slice with a shield with a cuttings;
III - the combination of components and piping
Learning to be vaccinated is not difficult, and without anyone's help on the available visual aids.But the learning process will be faster and safer (because we have to work very sharp knife), if you go to work in the closest plodopitomnik or go to the labor camp and rest under specialized fruit-growing state farms.Here and specialty may be obtained and to help farmers and to relax and earn some money, not extra family or personal budget.
Improved kopulirovka - the most common method of grafting rootstocks and thin shoots.The diameters of the scion and rootstock must be practically identical.Rootstock (seedling or clonal) cut at a height of 2-10 cm from ground level and make it on the cut, as shown in the figure.A similar cut made at the bottom end of the cutting scion, ticking up three buds and cut with?the rest of the shoot.The sections on the rootstock and scion must be mirror images of each other.grafting components are combined and tied.The upper section of the graft is covered with a thin layer of garden Vara.
Kopulirovka vpriklad with tongue or no tongue.If the scion and rootstock are not the same in diameter (the scion less), then use the vaccine vpriklad.The upper part of the rootstock is cut at the same level as in the previous case, putting the knife at an angle of 60 °, ie the cut is supposed to be beveled.Then on the stock from above makes the cut, the width of which corresponds to the diameter of the scion cutting and splitting.The lower end of the stalk is cut so that the cut surface shape and size correspond to the mirror slice on the rootstock.The components are combined and tied so as to cover and the upper section of the stock.To subsequently broke off the stalk does not immediately put a peg for the garter to his handle, and then developing the escape of his kidneys.
Kopulirovka seat - very similar to kopulirovku vpriklad, only at the lower cut of the cutting do pripolochku with which the stalk is still hanging on the rootstock.
Vaccination in the side desperately used in kennel on overgrown suspensions.Carry it in the spring, using as the scion cultivar growth last year.At the rootstock at a height of 15-20 centimeters from the bottom cut all aboveground part.On the rest of the stem at a height of 5-8 centimeters make an oblique incision, and at the bottom of the cuttings of the scion - a cut in the form of two-way wedge, similar to the size of the incision made on the stock.Pref gently inserted into the incision on the rootstock so that there was a match corresponding tissues.Components tied.To develop an escape will not break off, his tie to the hemp, which is cut in a year.
Consider two ways, especially widely used in recent years: the green and winter grafting.For the development of these techniques a large team of scientists awarded medals VDNH.The principal difference between winter grafting is that it is carried out in a hospital in the offseason, that is, when the workers are not
Fig.Kopulirovka improved Fig.Kopulirovka vpriklad with
Fig.Kopulirovka improved Fig.Kopulirovka vpriklad with
Fig.Kopulirovka Figure-8 vaccination in the side desperately
busy in the field.It becomes possible mechanization of the process.But at the same time this method requires capital costs for various facilities, materials and equipment.The maximum effect of taking turns in the performance of the complete cycle.Here briefly what the whole technological process of obtaining seedlings using winter vaccination.Prepare the seed or vegetatively propagated rootstocks and grafted cuttings.They are stored in cold stores so as to be able to use them at any time, for example, in January-March.The bright warm room on a comfortable workplace workers produce the vaccine.
sharpened knife vaccination is an oblique cut on the rootstock.It must be a minimum length of 1.5-2 cm and have a perfectly flat surface.The same cut is performed on the scion.On the scion and rootstock make desperately-tabs, which are necessary for a tight fastening components.The junction sections of components tied tightly.Now vaccinations must be placed in certain conditions, to fusion began.
Like scion and rootstock from under the bark layers are located is very active tissue - cambium.In certain circumstances, wounding the cambium cells start to divide rapidly, forming a loose white cloth - callus.It fills all the space between the components of the vaccine.Actively formed callus rootstock.But the scion as a large amount of callus cells.At the beginning they are tightly connected with each other because there is an insulating layer between them.After some time in the interlayer insulating gaps are formed, so called "breakthrough window" through which nutrients may flow from one component to another.Formed vascular system between graft and stock, and the insulating layer is gradually resorbed.So the process of fusion of grafted components in any method of vaccination.However, steady-state conditions it is possible to manage it.
interesting that can be influenced by many factors on the speed of this process: the timing of the vaccination, the ambient temperature.Most intensive process takes place in March, when at 25 ° C callus formed within 7 days.Once formed callus - the vaccine is ready for planting..But the fields are covered with snow drifts, because the spring was just rocked.Keep vaccinations should not be too warm - "izrastutsya".So they put in cold storage, pre-wrapped in plastic wrap and put in a container, and in April-May, are planted in the field.With proper care - abundant watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds, fertilizing - grows good yearlings, suitable for transplanting to the garden.But it often happens that the planted in the winter grafting fall in terms of lack of moisture.The weak root system does not have time to develop and provide an elevated part bad water and food.The beginning was the growth of shoots quickly stopped him,
barely reaching 20-30 cm in height.Display them is very difficult because of the state, even if you begin to water profusely.In particular, this capability is different grade Antonovka.Other varieties, such as Melba, when watering shoots resumed growth, but tend to increase in winter freezes.
So it turned out that seems to be a progressive reception in practical life application itself is not always the case.But gardeners, scientists decided, after grafting components grow together, to plant these plants in a greenhouse at once - directly in the ground or in the filled substrate (peat + sand) packages 30 centimeters high and 20 centimeters wide made of polyethylene film.At the bottom of the package, the corners must be hole and fill with soil the plant is necessary so as to remain on the surface, only the top bud scion.Packages with plants set firmly drug.k other, placing them so that it is convenient to carry out observation and care.The most important element of care - watering.In the wet substrate is formed roots.At the same time begin to blossom buds on the scion.Weak primary tender roots hardly provide pitatelnymi- substances emerging shoots.Therefore, irrigation is carried out frequently, in small portions.This not only will prevent the graft from the withers but prevent waterlogging.
After each watering is very useful soil loosening.If a timely manner to carry out all these operations very quickly will increase the cultural escape.So, it's time to think about dressing.Of the major nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium - okorenyayuschimsya plants first nitrogen is harmful, it inhibits the development of the roots.At the same time it is very necessary potassium.Phosphorus also contributes to the development of the root system.Therefore dressing should be phosphate-potassium (20 grams of each element per 10 liters of water).
Once escapes to reach a length of 10 centimeters, it is necessary to start fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers, which contribute to better growth of shoots.
Not all forms of nitrogen fertilizers are good for fruit plants in the greenhouse.And further.