The composition of the soil
Soil is the medium and the main condition for plant growth.In the soil, the plants take root and from it draw all the necessary for the life of nutrients and water.The term ground means the uppermost layer of the solid Earth's crust, and is suitable for the treatment of growing plants, which in turn consists of thin enough moisturizing and humus layers. moisturizing layer dark in color, has a small thickness of a few centimeters, contains the largest number of soil organisms, there is a flurry of biological activity. Humus layer thicker;if its thickness reaches 30 cm, it is possible to talk about a very fertile soil, there are numerous living organisms, processing plant and organic debris on the mineral components, as a result of which they are dissolved by groundwater and are absorbed by plant roots.Below are the mineral layer, and source rocks. mineral layer, or subsurface horizon, has a limited biological activity, it acts less living soil organisms, but it contains a huge amount of nutri
Soil consists of solid particles of different , air and water.The greater the space between the particles, the more permeable to air and water is the soil. Particulate in nature and are the main soil mass and can be organic and inorganic origin.Particulate inorganic soil is sand, clay and stony remnants.Clay particles in an optimal amount
very important for the quality of the soil, they have the ability to bind the soil, creating a larger lumpy formation and hold water with dissolved nutrients.Soil organic matter consists of humus or compost, and the so-called soil fauna.Humus, that the name of this substance is formed by the decomposition of organic residues and plant bacteria and other soil organisms.This very process is the basis of soil life and, therefore, rooted in its plants, since only the living soil organisms are able to recycle organic wastes in the available and suitable for consumption by plants in the form of the process of life.The process of decomposition of organic matter in the soil is called humification, and end its result is a product like humus, which determines the degree of soil fertility.In a simplified form of the process can be described as follows: soil bacteria and other organisms and decomposed vegetable organic residues resulting liberated mineral compounds vital for plant development.It is important that the decomposition process took place at a sufficient supply of oxygen, otherwise it will become a form of decay.
In terms of the content of humus (humus) soil divided into poor tal slightly humus (humus 1% or less), moderately humus (2 % humus), -moderate (2-3 %) and finally, humus, containing more than 3% humus.Favorable for breeding of any crop are considered soil, containing not less than 3-5 % humus.
important component of the soil is soil water, fills the space between the solid particles.It contains in solution nutrients of the soil, so that in fact it is not a pure water and a soil solution.Water enters the soil through the precipitation from the air, to a small degree as a result of ground water recharge, or by targeting watering.Soil water supply is the main condition for the development of all vital processes in it.The spaces, or pores, between the solid soil particles are filled with water due to capillary action and serve as conduits of water to the roots of plants, and also serve as drainage, preventing excessive accumulation of processes and stagnant water.
/. moistens the soil layer, bonded by plant roots, its thickness is no more than a few centimeters.
2. Humus layer, which is the basis of soil fertility, 100 cm thick.
3. subsoil is characterized by reduced activity of biological life.
4. Motherboard rocks
ability of different types of soil to absorb and retain moisture is not the same.Best absorbent sandy soils, where the space between soil particles is the greatest, but they are not able to keep its same factor thereby.Clay soil due to its compact structure and small spaces between the solid particles absorb less water and get rid of bad its excess, due to the impossibility of education in the capillaries of the soil sticky mass.Clay soils are most prone to stagnant processes.The ideal option is humus soil, which have a balanced structure with an optimal ratio of solid particles and the spaces between them, they absorb moisture well, keep it inside and through the capillary system of supplying the roots of plants.
Soil moisture also plays a role in soil temperature controller and supports the temperature balance.The more hydrated the soil, the slower it heats up and cools down more slowly.This affects the compensating effect of water.
Humus - most valuable organic and biologically active part of the soil.For plants, humus is the main source of nutrients, which dissolves in water, enter the plant through the roots and saturate it primarily nitrogen.Humus is formed as a result of the processes of humification products of the decomposition of organic residues, carried out by soil bacteria and other microorganisms.Nutrients
recycled humus in such a way that the suction is made available for the plant roots, and therefore can be completely assimilated by the plant.Furthermore, while in the bound state, they are not washed out of the soil.
high humus content in the soil is rich in reserves of nitrogen, it is necessary for plant life.
Humus has a stabilizing influence on all reactions and processes in the soil, including the processes of oxygen and water exchange.
Humus binds solid soil particles, converting them into crumbly lumps with pores, creates an optimal loose soil structure, which greatly increases its ability to absorb moisture and detention, as well as having a decisive impact on the soil permeability.
Humus has a dark brown to black in color, which gives it the ability to accumulate and retain heat.Humus soil warms up faster.
Soil air also contained in the cavities between the solid particles of the soil and determine the viability of a particular soil environment.Soil air contains more carbon dioxide than the atmosphere, because of the specificity of life of plant roots, which use oxygen for respiration and produce carbon dioxide.As a result of the presence of carbon dioxide exchange product fraction in the soil air increases.Air needs soil to provide breathing root system of plants and soil organisms.The lack of oxygen in the soil inhibits root growth, adversely affect the soil moisture uptake by plants and assimilation of nutrients dissolved in water.Therefore, even in soil with sufficient moisture
plant growth can be suppressed due to the lack of air and soil hindered in this regard nutrient absorption.Soil air contains about 90 % water vapor, so in hot weather reduces the water vapor content in the soil air and soil temperature begins to approach the ambient air temperature.Consequently, in plants experiencing extreme drought shortage of moisture.
Humus called immune system soil as preserve and improve soil structure due to its action in support of its main functions and provides a healthy soil environment.Humus activates the natural resistance of plants to diseases and pests, prevent massive growth of harmful organisms.
With the optimal balance of humus in the soil to maintain and improve its ability to filter and binding.The nutrients are retained in the organic surface layer of soil with well-developed root system, harmful substances decompose or as part of colloids are deactivated and are not dangerous for the soil fauna and plants.
Adding unnecessarily high doses of various fertilizers and unsustainable economy is reflected in the biological state of humus, which is the main criterion of its value.From this it follows that quantitative assessment of the content of humus in the soil not an indicator of fertility.Significant in assessing the humus is its biogenic state or measure the actual humus.In soils with a relatively high humus content as a result of many years of improper handling can be observed very low biogenic state of humus, so only the absolute content of humus, together with its biological value can present a true picture of the balance of humus in the soil.