Actinidia Overview

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

There are several species of Actinidia, purely decorative, and among them the kind of Actinidia polygamy, growing in the Far East, is quite heat-loving plant.But we are interested in you Actinidia species with edible fruit.

Actinidia - taiga plant several species that grow in the Ussuri taiga in the Far East of the country.There are varieties of Actinidia large Kishmish Ussuri, which shoots may reach 20-30 m and produce crops up to 20 kg.There manchzhurskaya Actinidia, which is called "Ussuri gooseberries."The scent of her flowers like the smell of lily of the valley, and its fruits are the most delicious of all kinds of Actinidia.They are similar to gooseberries with a smooth, thin, translucent skin and a wonderful taste.It grows in the Far East nosed Actinidia, which is called the "pepper" for the fruit, with the nose, like pepper, bright orange color and pungent flavor that disappears after the autumn frosts, and the fruits are very tasty.

But we are with you are interested in those species in which

the edible fruit.The largest fruit gives Actinidia Kiwi, which was developed in Australia and has received its name from the kiwi bird, lives exclusively in the country and the symbol of Australia.Everyone is familiar with the fruit, covered with hairy brownish skin, has a delicate, aromatic flavor.In nature, the growing Actinidia Argut, which are the same lohmatenkie fruits and the same taste like kiwi, only much smaller.But, unfortunately, and kiwi, and Argut - heat-loving plant, and only in the southern regions can be grown in our country.There is another variegated vine Actinidia Kolomikta, the fruits of which are reminiscent of gooseberry fruit - dates, such as amber-brown, elongated and smooth, and about the same size.They have a pleasant taste reminiscent of a strawberry, or the pineapple.But, in fact, they have their own wonderful flavor and a unique sweet and sour taste, the same as the taste of kiwi.The fruits of Actinidia many vitamins, especially vitamin C, the mass of micro and macro and organic acids.

Besides that Actinidia Kolomikta useful, it still strikingly beautiful.Its small, elongated, with distinct veined leaves have a magical property to change color.In the morning, when you are out in the garden, its leaves are light green, and suddenly in the middle of the day they are white, or the tips of the leaves acquired a crimson color, and some of them in the middle of the sheet formed light strip!It is because of the properties of the leaves change color it is called variegated vine.Like all the vines Actinidia moisture-loving, so in hot weather, when the weather is dry it should be watered, and although it is quite a deep root system.However, the vines can not tolerate stagnant water, so it is necessary to provide drainage when planting.

Features

growing varieties Choice

Now: the Northwest Actinidia Kolomikta more ornamental than berry.Often in winter the long thaw, she wakes up early, and late spring frosts usually freezes, despite its hardiness, so it blooms and bears fruit only occasionally.And because we Actinidia not only growing, but with difficulty surviving.

Over actinides Leningrad Oblast worked outstanding Leningrad professor FK Grouse.He and his followers from the All-Union Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) established stable enough for our climate varieties: Early Leningrad, Leningrad large, victory, Pavlovskaya, Decent, Major.

selection work continues today.So you have a choice.Berries from Actinidia delicious and flavorful, if you can grow them.Usually it works in the rare years with no spring frosts.

Many varieties of Actinidia Kolomikta were created IV Michurin: Harvest, Early, Late, Pineapple Michurin.

From fruits kolomikta cook jam, are not inferior in its taste of strawberry, make compotes and just eaten raw.

Landing

Usually plants that require support, planted at the walls of the building, but you should know that a trench under their planting should be done, departing from the wall at a distance of not less than 75 cm, otherwise a strong root system of vines gradually destroy the foundation.As the supports can be used arches, pergolas, grill, netting from a nylon fishing line or nylon rope.

Do not be afraid if the climber cling closely to the wall.It is well-established delusion that under the cover of its foliage will begin to rot wood, was completely destroyed when England began to restore the house of the writer Charles Dickens.It was found that under the vine tree was dry and the whole, in contrast to bend the walls free from the vines.

There is a simple explanation: the vines leaves are arranged like a tiled roof, one above the other, the water flows over them without hitting the wall.Furthermore, on the lower surfaces of the leaves have stomata, through which moisture from the suctioned creeper wall surface.

When planting for the vines do not dig separate pit.It is necessary to dig a trench along the house, in which further and the roots will go.Planting should be several plants.Firstly because Actinidia - dioecious plant, and it is best to plant two female and one male specimen plant between them.Unfortunately, pokaliany not bloom, it is impossible to distinguish the male from the female plant, so you should not buy from Actinidia casual sellers on any exhibition.Buy only need to chat in nurseries or from familiar people.

should dig a trench to a width of 50 cm and the same depth.One plant from another can be planted at a distance of 1.2-1.5 m from one another, because the vines

widely grow in the future and do not tolerate transplanting in adulthood.So plant them immediately and correctly in place.

Remember vines do not like acidic soil, but grow well and bear fruit in the slightly acidic.

At the bottom of the trench should be laid stones, broken silicate (but not red clay) bricks, gravel, pebbles, then fill with coarse river sand (for foundation works).And only after that you can fill the trench with soil.The soil should be specially prepared from the leaf mold and sand mixture in the ratio 1: 1.

What if there is leaf mold?Replace it rotted compost.If there is a rotted manure, then it must be mixed with half of the land that you are taken out of the trenches (of course, if it is not solid clay).The soil should be well wet with water, do hills, spread the roots of vines on them and gently fall asleep on top of the soil excavated from the trench.Do not trample down the landing.

to lay a good ground to the roots and not the void beneath them, slowly water the planting of the watering and the soil on the roots nalipnet.If you are trampling too heavily compacted earth, and it goes badly needed air roots.

Top soil should be zamulchirovat, ie fall asleep dry earth or peat to prevent moisture to evaporate from the surface of the earth.But peat have to limp, for that sprinkle ashes or lime.

At an early age Actinidia can kill cats that dig and chew the roots.To protect against such unwanted planting of barbarians have to put iron bars.When Actinidia odrevesneet barrel, cats will lose all interest in her and stop her though.Grids can be removed in about 2-3 years after planting.

Feeding and Care

spring, after the pass by frost, the vines can fertilize with organic nitrogen-containing.Before flowering it is necessary to give the phosphoric fertilizer (1 tbsp. Spoonful of double granulated superphosphate per 10 liters of water) for each vine, and after fruiting fertilize potassium containing no chlorine.It's enough to close up the soil under the vine 1 tbsp.potassium spoon or sprinkle the soil with ash (1 cup).Before the winter you can pour on half a bucket of rotted manure or compost.

the winter with pillars Actinidia are not removed.It is winter-hardy plant and does not require the shelter, but in spring it is very vulnerable and severely affected by spring frosts.To the young leaves and shoots are not killed in the spring on the vine should be sketching lutrasil.Actinidia Kolomikta can grow up to 5-7 meters in height.

When and how to prune the vine?All the vines did not suffer spring scrap (as well as the stone fruits).They have not delayed the cut and the juice flowing at all times through the wound until it is dry the whole branch.So all pruning vines make late summer or early fall.Carve only broken or too old branches.

When the vine begins to grow, it stems directly tie to the supports.In the future, she spun around poles, counterclockwise.

Normally vines grow in the woods, clinging to the trees, so the soil under them should be covered from the sun, and the plants themselves must be in the sun.Usually recommend planting Actinidia along the western and eastern walls of buildings.On the north side of the house, it will not grow.

How to distinguish the male from the female plant?At the time of flowering on the female plants are located throughout the vine single, small, campanulate type of white flowers.And on the male plants such as flowers are collected in bundles of 3-7 flowers.Of course, the fruits are formed only on the female plants.Adult vine at the age of 10 gives up to 5 kg of berries.

As Actinidia propagated? Not seeds.Suckers does not, cuttings take root poorly, long and hard.The easiest way to softwood cuttings in July -chale.But always with a "Kornevinom".You can dip konetscherenka into the water and then into powder "Kornevina" and immediately planted in cherenochnik.In cuttings must take the middle part of the new growth.End of vines for grafting is not necessary.

Cherenochnik made in the shade, be sure to cover the film, constantly (2- 3 times a day) are sprayed with the plants and the soil of the hand sprayer and keep it in bowls of water for humidification.Liana almost no sick, and pests she actually is not.So the plant, especially if you need to close any unsightly structure.