This fundamental characteristic of the soil, as a structure depends primarily on its composition and its content of humus, which in turn determines the degree of activity of the soil fauna, the soil's ability to absorb, retain moisture and form a strong capillary system that delivers water from the bottomthe upper layers of the soil, its air permeability and heat transfer.Under soil structure is meant the spatial ordering of solid soil particles and
spaces between them - now.Ideally, the soil should be 50 % particulate soil material and 50% of the net-like or closed voids filled with air and water.
Most soil material consists of mineral particles up to 10% of soil composition falls on organic substances such as humus and living in its environment numerous soil organisms, the remaining portion falls on a cavity between the solid soil particles filled with soil moisture and air.The accepted classification of soil types based on the content of the mineral and organic parts.For example, sand, which fou
Clay particles, in contrast, does not exceed the value of 0.003 mm and is filled with all the physical space of the soil, forming a very dense structure with a small number of empty spaces.Therefore, the clay soils are characterized by low air and water permeability, the slow warming of as well as a tendency to the appearance of stagnant processes.
Thick, or monolithic, soil structure, which is characterized by heavy soils with a high content of clay particles is not very favorable for the plants.She does not pass water and air, prevents the growth and the free placement of the roots.Due to the lack of air and water in the soil so it is limited to the biological activity of microorganisms and thus reduced the level of their livelihoods and nutritional products.Particularly strong soil structure conjoint shown after contact with water it when the solution-filled clay particles ie the entire space, forming the so-called concrete ground.
Sandy, or, worse, dust-like, soil structure is also unfavorable for the plants.Because of their excessive fluidity solid soil particles do not form lumps , water is rapidly absorbed and retained soil, leaving the lower layers and: restraining the soil layer.Water carries with oboe dissolved nutrients, some plants simply do not have time to digest and therefore suffer from lack of water and nutrients.Plants take root in such bad soils, because the root system is not kept in the loose structure.Sand and dust-like soil warms up quickly and cool down quickly, because there is no moisture, the ability to regulate temperature and to maintain the temperature of the soil balance.
method phytoindication soil
predominance of certain vegetation on certain areas lets you draw conclusions about the structure, the state of the soil and its properties.Thus, analyzing the vegetation in the soil plot, you can roughly determine what type of soil we have to do.If the plant cover on the soil area is sparse, this indicates a low natural fertility.High dense vegetation consisting of good health and apparently strong plants, says the good soil conditions, its richness in nutrients.The predominance of vegetation moisture-loving plants indicates a close groundwater occurrence.
soils with a high content of nitrogen - nettle, thistles, mint, Araneus ordinary.
soils low in nitrogen - Clover Field, lyadvenets, chickweed, toadflax.
Istovtsennye soil - chamomile, shepherd's purse.
compaction - plantain, cinquefoil goose, foxtail.
humus soil - chickweed, Veronica arvensis, Lamium purpureum, dandelion, daisy.
Wetlands and marshy soil - moisture-loving vegetation, sedge, horsetail, Pikul-nick, pickerel, bulrush.
most favorable for all kinds of plants is fine lumpy, granular or soil structure when individual solid soil particles form lumps with a diameter of 8-10 mm.Due to the availability of sufficient space between the individual clumps so the soil is characterized by good water permeability, the ability to absorb, accumulate moisture to form strong capillary system that supplies moisture to the suction plant roots, as well as excellent breathability and quick warming of the sun's rays.Loose friable soil structure depends on the clay-humus combining its various components, which arise as a result of vital activity of many soil organisms mixing
The size of solid soil particles depends on the soil structure and its basic properties
mineral and soil organic matter and "gluing "them in the process of assimilation by microorganisms, bacteria, and other members of the biological soil environment.Ultimately, the goal of any treatment process is to achieve a loose soil structure while preserving its complex composition.
important mechanical properties of the soil condition is its density, which is simply determined empirically for any form of machining. increased density characterized by certain types of alkaline soils, it is practically impossible to dig a shovel, tools required, dividing their structure, such as a crowbar, pickaxe, spade. Dense soil is hard to handle, shovel for digging and breaking up clods and layers must be significantly strengthened.Usually dense clay soils and lower horizons of loamy soils. Loose soils are easy to handle, shovel dug up with minimal effort, the selected layers of the earth scattered themselves on the lumps and smaller structural lumps.Such a density usually have humus and well-cultivated soil.
Loose soils are somewhat difficult to handle, because when digging pits or trenches fall off the edge and the wall, there is formlessness.Such friable soil mass characteristic of loamy soils.
From the structure of the soil depends on such an important characteristic of her as soil sorption. Over 80 % of precipitation falls during infiltration into the soil to absorb the huge amount of natural water, the soil should fully implement filtering and vodoakkumuli-oscillating functions, that is, have good sorption.
Under soil sorption understand the soil's ability to absorb moisture from the environment, accumulate and hold it, and the arrest and bind nutrients, minerals, salts and other substances in its composition.In this case, we can talk about the physical and biological-related substances.
From soil sorption depends on its characteristics such as vlagovmestimost. degree vlagovmestimosti shows the amount of precipitation can be absorbed, assimilated and later used the soil, and which would be excessive.Excessive rainfall, not assimilated soil flows on its surface and erodes topsoil.Thus, durability depends on vlagovmestimosti integrity of the soil cover.The best sorption capacity and vlagovmestimostyu characterized by loose soil with a fairly porous grain-hundred-lumpy structure capable of holding water soluble nutrients and convert them in the full exchange substances acceptable for assimilation by plants form.Sandy soils do not have good sorption and valuable nutrients are washed away, leaving with the water of the reach of plant roots deep layers of the soil.In clay soils, on the contrary, any transfer of accumulated water with nutrients is very limited dissolved in it, so plant nutrition and metabolism difficult.By
plant roots moisture comes from the process, or the reverse infiltration of moisture absorption.During this process, the water from the soil strata is moving in the direction of the surface of the system thin hair vessels - capillaries, and the process is called capillary rise of water. Going up to the upper layers of soil, moisture is placed at the disposal of the plant root system and partially evaporates from the soil surface.Capillarity soil also depend on its structure.On sandy soils, the capillary rise of the water table through the first goes quickly, but reaches only a small height compared to clay soils with a slow process, and a higher rise.An important characteristic of the soil is its ability absorb the sun's heat. Depends on the thermal regime of the soil as a whole, which affects the development of plants that occurs in certain conditions of temperature.Changes in the temperature regime of the soil in the upward or downward can adversely affect the germination of seeds and the subsequent development of the plants.On the soil's ability to absorb heat is influenced by a number of factors:
structural composition of the soil: the more coarse particles in the soil (sand), the faster it heats up and requires less heat to reach a certain temperature indicator;
color of the soil: dark soil better heat retention, as dark surface heats up quickly, dark soil quickly thawed in the spring;
moisture level in the soil: dry soils warm up much faster than moist, warm soil degree of depth is also higher;
degree of saturation of the soil with humus and other organic substances: humus soil warms better and faster due to the dark color, loose porous structure to provide thermal conductivity and optimum moisture content in the soil.
It should be remembered that the soil structure can be corrected to a large extent, change and sometimes drastically improve.
Before taking any to improve the soil structure measures, its chemical composition, enrichment of its nutritional
Rules soil selection for the trial
on an area of 15 - 20 places to make
pits ki depth on shtyklopaty.Dustpan to scrape
in eschestvami should make analysis of the soil, so that any actions were focused.
Soil analysis will reveal its composition, the level of different chemical elements and compounds, a set of minerals, the degree of humus, acid reaction of the soil and many other parameters.