Soil - a living organism
Soil - a living organism consisting of innumerable microscopic living creatures.The number and diversity of living organisms in the soil immeasurably.In 1, the soil contains billions of bacteria, fungi, algae and other organisms, and in addition, a great number of earthworms, woodlice, millipedes, snails and other soil organisms that as a result of metabolism processed protein dead organisms and other organic residuesnutrients available for uptake by plants.Because of their activity in the soil from the source vegetable protein material and humus formed, from which the resulting compound with water and oxygen are released and plant nutrients.The loose soil structure is also achieved largely through the activities of
soil organisms that are naturally mixed mineral and organic matter, producing a new rich substance.This greatly increases the fertility of the soil.The study of soil animals by a special branch of science - soil zoology, which was formed only in this century.Once the experts have developed
Among them are large invertebrates such as earthworms and micro-organisms that can not be seen with the naked eye.In addition to small size (up to 1 mm), the majority of soil invertebrates and has a discreet color of the integument, whitish or gray, so you can see them only after special treatment catches, under a magnifying glass or microscope.Microorganisms are the basis of the animal population of the soil, the biomass which reaches hundreds of quintals per hectare.If we talk about the number of earthworms and other large invertebrates, it is measured in tens or hundreds per square meter, while the number of small and microscopic organisms reaches millions and billions of individuals.
For example, protozoa and roundworms (nematodes) with a body size up to 0.01 mm in their physiology - typically water being able to breathe oxygen dissolved in water.The smallest size allows them to be content with microscopic droplets of moisture, soil filling the narrow cavity.There worms move, find food, breed.When drying of the soil they are able to for a long time to be in an inactive state, covered with dense outside the protective shell of solidifying secretions.
From larger soil organisms may be called soil mites, springtails, small worms - close relatives of earthworms.This is the true land animals.They breathe atmospheric oxygen, occupy air-nye vnutripochven cavity, root passages, holes larger invertebrates.Small size, flexible
Soil organisms are a vital link in a closed metabolic cycle.Due to their metabolic products are all organic decomposed, processed and acquire mineral form available to plants.Mineral substances dissolved in the water, coming from the soil to the roots of plants, and the cycle begins all over again
body allow them to use even the most narrow spaces between the soil particles, and to penetrate into the deep layers of dense clay soils.For example, hard ticks go deep into the 1.5-2 m. For these small soil inhabitants of the soil is also not dense mass, and the moves and the system of cavities interconnected.Animals live on their walls, in caves.Waterlogging of the soil is equally unfavorable to its inhabitants, as well as drying out.Well distinguishable soil invertebrates with body sizes larger than 2 mm.Here you can meet a diverse group of worms, terrestrial mollusks, crustaceans (woodlice, amphipods), spiders, harvestmen, lodges, noskorpionov, centipedes, ants, termites, larvae (beetles, Diptera and Hymenoptera), caterpillars of butterflies Earthworms and some insect larvae havestrongly developed musculature.By reducing the muscle, they increase the size of his body and pushing the soil particles.The worms swallow earth, pass it through your intestines and are moving forward with this, as it were, "will pass" through the soil.Behind they leave their droppings to exchange products and slime abundantly secreted into the intestinal cavity.These slimy lumps worms cover the surface of progress, strengthening its walls, so these moves are stored in the soil for a long time.
And insect larvae have special education in the limbs, head, sometimes on the back, they act like a shovel.For example, medvedok front legs turned into powerful tools of digging - they expanded, with jagged edges.These scrapers can loosen even very dry soil.In the larvae of the beetles
digging tunnels to a considerable depth, are an instrument of loosening the upper jaw, which have the form of triangular pyramids with jagged peaks and ridges on each side of the powerful.Larva strikes these jaws into the soil ball, breaks it into smaller particles, and scoops them for yourself.Other major soil inhabitants live in the existing cavities.They differ, as a rule, very flexible thin body and can penetrate into the very narrow and winding passages. digging activity animals is of great importance for the soil.Running System improves its aeration, which favors the growth of roots and the development of aerobic microbe-cial processes related to the humification and mineralization of organic material.No wonder Charles Darwin wrote that long before man invented the plow, earthworms learned how to cultivate the land and well.He devoted a special book "Education soil by earthworms and observations on the way the past life."
main role soil organisms is the ability to rapidly process the crop residues, manure, household waste, turning them into high-quality natural organic fertilizer vermicompost. In many countries, including our own, have learned to plant worms on special farms for the production of organic fertilizers.To assess the contribution of invisible workers of the soil vuyurmirovanii its structure will help the following examples.So, the ants that build soil nests, throw on the surface of the deep layers of the soil more than a ton per 1 hectare of land.For 8-10 years they recycle almost the entire horizon inhabited by them.A desert woodlice raised from a depth of 50 to 80 cm on the surface of the soil, enriched with elements of mineral nutrition of plants.Where are the colony of woodlice, higher vegetation and thick.Storm worm is capable of handling annually up to 110 tons per 1 hectare of land.
Moving in the ground and feeding on dead plant residues, animal mixed organic and mineral particles of the soil.Ground zataskivaya litter into deep layers, thus they improve aeration of these layers contribute to the activation of the micro-bialnyh processes, which leads to enrichment of the soil humus and nutrients.It was his work animals produce humus horizon and soil structure.
role of earthworms in the soil biological life
Earthworms loosen the soil, penetrating unlike other soil organisms that can live in only one layer of the soil in different soil layers.A Realized worm hole to the roots of plants penetrate the air and water.
Earthworms contribute to the enrichment of the soil with oxygen, thus preventing the processes of decay of organic material
: Earthworms consume organic remains, with whom the digestive tract enter the mineral particles, particles of clay, soil algae, bacteria, micro-organisms.There's this heterogeneous material is mixed and processed, due to metabolic processes, supplemented with the secretions of the intestinal microflora of the worm, acquiring a new state, and then gets into the soil in the form of manure.It improves the quality of the soil and gives it glued lumpy structure.
Man learned to cultivate the soil, fertilize it and to obtain high yields.whether it replaces the activity of soil organisms?To some extent, yes.But with intensive land use modern methods, in case of overload the soil with chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, growth stimulants), with frequent violations of its surface layer and the seal of his agricultural machinery occur deep breach of natural processes that lead to a gradual degradation of soil, reducing its fertility.Excessive amounts of fertilizers are poisoning the land and kill its biological life.Chemical treatment of the soil destroys not only pests but also beneficial animals.years required to recover the damage.Today, during the greening of our thinking, it is worth considering and above so, what criteria to assess the damage caused to crops.Until now it was assumed only losses from pests.But let's count and the loss caused by the death of the soil itself soil-formers.
for soil conservation, this unique natural resources of the earth, capable of self-regeneration of its fertility, it is necessary first of all to maintain its fauna.Soil organisms, soil formers do what they can not yet make a man with its powerful technique.They need a stable environment.They need oxygen in the system of the done and moves the stock of organic residues, asylum and moves that do not violate human.Prudent management of the economy, sparing methods of tillage and maximum rejection of chemical plant protection products means creating the conditions for the conservation of the living biomira soil - a pledge of its fertility.
nutrients in soil composition
All necessary components for the life of the plants can be obtained from the soil only in mineral form.Nutrients, which are rich in organic matter, humus and organic fertilizers can be absorbed by plants only after the process of decomposition of organic compounds or their mineralization.
presence in the soil sufficient nutrients is one of the key factors in the successful development of plants.His aerial parts, roots, flowers, fruits and seeds of plants built from organic materials: fats, proteins, carbohydrates, acids and other substances produced by plants green leaf mass.For the synthesis of organic substances plants need ten main elements, which are called biogenic.Biogenic chemical elements are constantly included in the composition of organisms and perform certain biological functions, ensure the viability of the organisms.For biogenic macroelements include carbon (C), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), hydrogen (H), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), sulfur(S).Some of these elements the plant receives from the air, such as oxygen and carbon, hydrogen gets the decomposition of water in the process of photosynthesis
process of exchange of nutrients
Nutrients play an important role in the cyclical process of metabolism, providing vital functions of plants.Water dissolves the nutrients and trace elements, creating the soil solution, which is absorbed by the roots of plants Solar energy contributes to nutrient transformation as a result of the process of photosynthesis, which, in turn, depends on the presence in plant tissues of a number of trace elements involved in the formation of colored substance chlorophyll
for the remaining elements of the plant coming exclusively from the soil in the form of dissolved compounds, so-called soil solution.If the soil there is a serious lack of any of the elements that the plant weakens and develops only to a certain stage, it has not yet exhausted its internal biological reserve of the element present in plant tissues.After this stage, the plant may die.In addition to macro-nutrients for plant development needed micronutrients contained usually in very small amounts, but nonetheless play an important role in metabolic processes.To trace elements include: aluminum (A1), boron (B), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum Mo), sodium (Na), silicon (Si), zinc (Zn).Hei -residue or excess of trace elements leads to metabolic disorder that involves
for a lag in growth and development of plants, reduced productivity and other consequences.Some of these minerals are not essential and often distinguished researchers in the group of so-called "useful elements".Nevertheless, their presence is required for the full development of the plants.All components must be present in a food plant in a balanced way, as the absence of at least one of the main elements, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or calcium, inevitably entail failure or inability to uptake by the plant of the other three elements, and other nutrients.That is why you have all the elements so important for the full assimilation of all plant nutrient complex.
ability of plants to absorb nutrients from the environment is determined by the quality and volume of the root system.Plants absorb nutrients throughout the growing season, but unevenly.Plants need for nutrients changes in different stages of development.In the period of intensive growth of plants in particular need of nitrogen during flowering and fruiting increased need for phosphorus and potassium.Absorption of nutrients selectively fixed in various plant organs.