Organic fertilizers

June 07, 2016 23:00 | General Information About Plants

Organic fertilizers are beneficial to the soil, improve its characteristics, such as air and water permeability, have a stabilizing effect on the soil structure.Expanding the land, organic fertilizer develop humus layer of the soil, thus greatly increase its fertility and the content in it of nutrients.In addition, organic fertilizers contributes to the regulation of biological processes in the soil and activates the activity of soil microorganisms.Currently, due to the ecologization of consciousness of our absolute preference for natural organic fertilizer, about them and will be discussed in this section.Natural organic fertilizers are animal and vegetable origin.Depending on the origin of organic fertilizers in various ways affect the way animals have a greater impact on the chemical composition and plant - the physical quality of the soil.However, most organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the physical and chemical properties of the soil, in addition there is always the possibility to combi

ne several types of organic fertilizer combining their positive properties.Almost all organic fertilizers are complete, because they contain nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, as well as many trace elements, vitamins and hormones in plant-available form.Among the organic fertilizer of animal origin occupies the leading place manure.

This type of manure, having a base, often in contrast to the slurry called farmyard manure.

composition of manure varies depending on the species and the material which is used as litter at the site of their content.This can be straw, peat, sawdust, wood chips.Manure with straw bedding very high quality, a good structure, and rotted in its composition straw manure enriches the extra nutrients.Less commonly used as bedding peat, which absorbs an animal faeces and ammonia delay, giving the abyss of this nitrogen organic fertilizer.Sawdust and wood chips are also often used for the litter, but they are less effective.By type of animal manure are divided into horse, goat, sheep, cattle, swine and rabbit (droppings).

Horse manure has a porous structure, characterized by a high lightness and decomposition releases a lot of heat, much more than other types of manure.The essence of the process of heat transfer is reduced literally to the following: the dung heap is heated under the influence of a thriving flora and decomposes with heat and a large amount of nitrogen.Since the heat of horse manure is very high, it is often used for heating greenhouses.Horse manure decomposes rapidly and heats the soil, so it is recommended for use in heavy, compacted, slowly warming up soil that slow decomposition and as a result get the necessary heat.In the dense clay soils using horse manure, you can make a warm bed.Horse manure is advised to make every 2-3 years, closing up to a small or medium depth.Action sheep and goat manure is similar to the processes taking place with horse manure.They are also considered as "burning", ie fast decomposition, it emits a lot of heat in this case, which under certain conditions can damage the plants.Therefore, they are like the horse manure is not recommended for use on light soils.

manure of cattle, and often cow manure called mullein in people, has more dense than that of horse manure, and the structure is characterized by a much slower decomposition stage with less heat.This accounts for its versatility for all-types of soil.Cow manure is extremely rich in essential nutrients, including nitrogen, which is contained in it in a favorable form for plants.The frequency of application of cow manure depends on the soil structure: heavy, compacted and wet soils it is recommended to apply every 3-4 years, as the process of decomposition is slow to medium soils - every 3 years, closing up shallow.On light soils, where decomposition occurs quickly and just as quickly go into the deeper layers of soil nutrients, cow manure should be applied once every 2 years and with sufficient depth of embedment.

Pig manure considered the least favorable of all types of manure.This is due, primarily, with its watery unsaturated structure and sustained long-term process of decomposition.The content of substances in pig manure is high enough, but the form in which they are not very favorable for the plants.Unlike the horse and cow manure pig manure is "cold", that is, when heat expansion is small.That is why it is not recommended for use in heavy soils, further slowing down the decomposition process.For sandy soils pig manure is suitable, but preference should be given to other types of manure.

Rabbit droppings on the content of nutrients and active substances exceed the listed types of manure, but in its pure form is rarely used.It is used for the preparation of composts and as a liquid feeding.Top dressing of rabbit droppings are prepared and used as follows.1-2 kg of manure diluted in a bucket of water and let stand for a while until it all does not disperse.Dig a shallow pit in the ground and they pour liquid fertilizer at the rate of 1.5 l / m2.The pits after making dressing covered with soil.There are a number of common rules and recommendations for the use of all types of manure.Absolutely can not make under any culture of fresh manure, as in the process of decomposition of fresh manure into the soil will release toxic gases to the root system, and allocate considerable heat, causing the plants can simply "burn".In addition, undecomposed organic substances in the composition of manure containing the batteries out of the reach of plant form and a large number of germinating weed seeds.In this connection, you can only use manure, has reached a certain stage of decomposition.According to the degree of decomposition distinguish fresh (unusable), polupereprevshy, rotted manure and humus.

Polupereprevshy manure has a dark brown color, and its weight is reduced by over 20-30 % during the primary decomposition. rotted manure is a black homogeneous mass, which no longer distinguish the individual parts of the litter.In the process of decomposition of the nutrients become available for plant form and they can be learned.For material rotted manure is stored so-called cold process.On leveled and compacted ground manure piled in layers in the stack and well compacted.To reduce the loss of nitrogen, which is released during the decomposition of manure, it is recommended to pour each layer of phosphorite flour or peat.On top of the stack is covered with a thick layer of peat 25-30 cm thick layer of dry leaves or straw to minimize nitrogen losses and prevent manure from freezing.In this form, keep manure from 4 to 8 months.In 10 polupereprevshego manure contains nitrogen '50, '25 phosphorus, potassium '60.Before making manure it is desirable to enrich the addition of phosphate fertilizers. Humus is the result of long-term manure decomposition, as well as leaves, grass, straw and other crop residues.Very soft kind of organic fertilizers.Its embedded in the soil is mixed into the ground for planting, a pour culture and used in admixture with mulching materials.Valuable view of organic fertilizers is bird droppings. This is a complete organic fertilizer on nutrient exceeds all kinds of manure.It is characterized by a high rate of expansion and speed of action.The fresh bird droppings do not make a plant.It can be embedded in the ground under the autumn digging the rate of 200 to 300 g / m2, but more poultry manure is used for the preparation of composts or kept the same as manure, leading to polupereprevshego state.Poultry manure serves as a basis for the preparation of a liquid feeding or leaven.Barrel 1/3 should be filled with bird droppings and fill to the top with water, mix thoroughly and leave for 3-5 days, stirring occasionally.Do not insist dressing for too long due to the large losses of nitrogen.After a period of infusion liquid fertilizer diluted in a ratio of 1 part to 4.3 parts feeding water and added to the wells of culture under the rate of 1 per 1 m2 of the bucket.Another way to apply poultry manure is a dry process.Bird droppings crushed to a powder and sprinkle a culture rate of 30-50 g / m2.Bird droppings can also be mixed with peat, and use as a basic fertilizer in this form.

liquid manure, also called manure or slurry, is an excellent azotnokaliynym fertilizer, valued for its speed and because it can be used almost constantly, spreading as necessarywater and making a root fertilizing.Particularly responsive to this type of feeding strong and average consumers of nutrients: white- and red cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, cabbage, broccoli, celery, onions, spinach, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, squash, zucchini, squash, eggplant, spinach, carrots, beetroot, lettuce and some other crops.When using the slurry for feeding it should be diluted with water at a ratio of 1 part slurry to 3 or 5 parts of water, this amount can add superphosphate 25 '30 for the enrichment of liquid fertilizer and to make fertilizer at the rate of 1.5-2 l / m2.

liquid manure fertilizer can be prepared as follows.The solid manure bedding lay in the barrel, filling it 1/4, fill to the top with water, preferably rainwater, and let stand for 1-2 days, stirring regularly.To reduce the odor, you can add fumed silica.The present liquid fertilizer to water the plants.

Bone Meal is a product of the processing of animal bones, obtained from the slaughter of cattle.Prized for its high content of calcium and phosphorus in particular.Bone meal is used as a base fertilizer at the rate of 4.3 kg / m2.In its natural form decomposes slowly, should be finely grind or dissolved in water to speed up the action bone meal.It can also be added to the compost to it in their composition has passed the primary stage of decomposition.Exceptions are light soils, accelerating the decomposition process, so they are bone meal can be used in its natural form.

Peat divided into horse lowland and transition. peat is malorazlo-lived product, and therefore for direct use as fertilizer is not suitable.But it can be successfully composted pretreated ground calcium carbonate with lime, and then used as a finished fertilizer lochv different types in order to improve their physical properties and humus enrichment.This last primary processing horse and transitional peat can also be added to the compost or used as mulch.In composting, lime is added to peat, phosphorite flour, mineral fertilizers and manure, bird droppings or other biologically active components. lowland peat suitable for fertilizer and compost without pre-treatment, because it is a recycled product.Soil fertilized with peat, is especially good for growing vegetables, as it has all the necessary conditions for the development of their delicate root system.

Comparative characteristics of upland and lowland peat,%:

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO pH.

Horse

peat 1

0,06

8,08

03

0,13 3

Lowland

peat 2,8

0,1

0,12

2,5

0,3 5

Ililistye deposits, also called sludge, sucks fresh water - particularly valuable nitrogenfertilizer, which accumulates on the bottom of freshwater bodies as rivers, ponds, lakes.This type of fertilizer contains 10-30 % organic matter, 0,3-2 % nitrogen, 0,2- 0,5 % phosphorus, 0,3-0,5 % potassium.Upper silt layers have a higher nutrient content than the lower.IL is used as a fertilizer directly introducing into the soil or after composting with other organic materials.The pure mud is applied after drying and airing.These preliminary procedures are necessary to reduce the moisture and the sludge therein the complete oxidation of CHIN-compounds, whose action can have a depressing effect on plant growth.IL freshwater well on light soils make the rate of 3-4 kg / m2.

Wood ash is characterized by a high content of nutrients, such as phosphorus, potassium, calcium (40%), magnesium and various sulfur compounds.The highest content of nutrients is observed in the form of potash , readily soluble and fast-acting.Especially effective is the action of fly ash in acidic soils, where it is recommended to make under the autumn digging in the rate of 500-700 g / m2.Ash is best to scatter on the soil surface to potash in the composition of the ash does not harm young tender roots of plants.Closing up into the soil to improve its structure, materials such as straw and shredded bark, simultaneously should be made nitrogen, which is consumed during their decomposition.

so-called green organic fertilizer over the years, gaining more and more popularity due to its exceptional environmental performance, as well as the fact that the plants themselves are used as fertilizers, are part of a living plant complex, extending its life cycle of development,and therefore closest to the nature of fertilized crops.There are two basic ways to use plants as a fertilizer: herbal infusions and cultivation of green mass of plants followed by plowing it into the ground.

Herbal infusions very valuable kind of manure, it is made by the roots of plants, and is also used as a means of pest control, spraying them aboveground part of the plant.

main value of liquid fertilizer in the form of herbal infusions is mild strengthening effect on plants, increasing their resistance to disease and resistance to natural hazards.Therefore, fertilizing plants with herbal infusions is largely preventive in nature and gives positive results without the use of potent chemical fertilizers.

Prepare an herbal infusion not difficult.To do this in a barrel or other large container lay plants such as nettle, collected before flowering, comfrey, dandelion, chamomile, wormwood.More often, especially in summer, use fresh plant, but can be applied and dried herbs.Fresh or dried plants crush, lay down the barrel and fill to the top with water.It is best to use rainwater-settled that contains less salt and impurities, it will increase the value of the liquid fertilizer.The proportion is chosen arbitrarily, but an approximate ratio of parts of water, and the plants should be as follows: 1 kg of fresh herbs or dried 200 g per 10 liters of water.The infusion should be well fermented, then the grass will give all they contain valuable substances and nitrogen will be released during decomposition.