green manure plants

June 08, 2016 23:00 | General Information About Plants

lupine, nasturtium, fava beans, field peas, alfalfa, rape, vetch, white mustard, buckwheat, Phacelia, various kinds of clover, ryegrass mnogoukosny, annual ryegrass and Italian, ornithopus, oilseed radish.

particularly valuable result of green manuring on crop production stage is a positive change in the dynamics of turnover of nutrients in the soil composition.Green manure plants produce from the soil and air a considerable amount of nutrients ee

Dpina root system of green manure plants 70 days after planting: a - field peas;b - ornithopus;in - vetch;-yellow of lupine;d - blue blue lupine

butterfly (bean) plants have the ability to accumulate and store the nitrogen in nodules on the specific ramifications of the root system.Thus, these plants retain nitrogen in the soil, and this is their main value as a green manure.

right - structure azotsberega guide nodule-sectional

substances that accumulate in their tissues.Plant species with a strong and deeply penetrating root systems h

ave a high potential for the development of the root soil standing and the ability to use nutrients minerals from lower soil layers that have been moved or washed with water.The root system of plants will mobilize these nutrients, and they again become available to the plant.Due to metabolism and the subsequent return of organic matter and nutrients to the soil through the green mass of Side-eral plants there is a moving minerals from the lower layers of the soil in the upper topsoil.Of particular note is the unique quality of green manure plants papilionaceous family which possess the ability to bind and accumulate nitrogen through symbiotic nodule bacteria (Rhizobium leguminosarum) with the roots of these plants.A thin root hairs bacteria penetrate the root of the plant and encourage him to the widening of nodules, which are clearly visible in the form of beads excavated at the root of the plant.The plant develops nodules as the bacteria protection in this vital symbiotic community and provides them with everything necessary for energy.Nodule bacteria in turn can bind nitrogen from the air and make it available to the plant.Thus, nodules on the roots of papilionaceous plants serve as a place of accumulation and nitrogen accumulation.Nitrogen in the organic compounds in the nodules in the process of decomposition of the organic mass then becomes available cultures.The above-described property makes butterfly valuable nitrogen fertilizer plants at the stage of their cultivation.

next step after cropping green manuring - incorporation of green mass of plants siderolnyh soil.The results of the agricultural practices are the second area of ​​the beneficial effects of green manuring on the soil.At this stage, the aerial parts of the plants mowed, but the roots are left in the ground, providing a set of soil animals and organisms, food and thereby stimulating the development of soil fauna.The roots of the plant, thanks to the improved soil aeration, decompose quickly and evenly, returning to the soil the nutrients in plant-available form and enriching it with nitrogen.The aerial parts of the plant green manure as a mulch layer or embedded in the soil greatly enrich the soil with organic mass.

When plowing green manure crops in the ground can do without crushing plant if mow their young until the hard fibrous stems.But fertilizing effect in this case is less intense, as it was in the mature parts of the plant nitrogen content is highest and protein compounds,

neodrevesnevshie green mass of green manure plants, protein-rich, rapidly decomposes in the soil, creating a light and nutritious humus, and immediately activating activitysoil microorganisms, which are used to supply carbon as a source of energy and nitrogen for protein structure of your own body.In addition, at the stage of rapid decomposition of organic matter, nitrogen losses are minimal.The influx of easily decomposable organic mass considerably increases the biological activity of soils, which in turn leads to better absorption of plant nutrients and makes them favorable dynamics.Due to the expansion emitted from the green mass of organic acids minerals in complex compounds dissolve and become available to plants.It is important for the balance of nutrients and especially for phosphorus levels in the soil.Essential also is the relationship and level of green manuring soil acidity due to the changing balance of lime.With the expansion of the green mass of green manure plants in the process of humification increased carbon dioxide content in the soil.With its large accumulation is necessary to neutralize by liming, the rate of which is determined depending on the degree of acidity of the soil changed.Liming

in this case contributes to the value of the pH, which favors the absorption of nutrients by plants and creates the conditions for high-grade microorganisms, decaying plant matter in the soil.Green manuring is also a kind of energy fixed by plants, ie the crop remains and decomposes directly to the place of his growth, providing energy and nutrients to subsequent crops in the rotation.The soil for growing green manure plants in the garden and carefully prepared as for any other major crops.The finer the seeds, especially the soil to be loosened.When sown green manure crops must select the correct number of seeds per unit area, on the one hand, and to observe the mass density of the plants, and on the other hand, leave sufficient for normal growth and development of plant space.It is important to take into account the depth of seeds for the current to all cultures principle seeds coated with a layer of land, equal to the thickness of the three-sown seeds, on light soils the seeds are buried a little deeper, on heavy soils - are smaller.Planting green manure requires adequate irrigation for the development of rich green mass.Mustard, rapeseed, oilseed radish Phacelia give a good harvest is already used by weeks and lupine - 2,5-3 months.To reasonably fill the intervals between planting and the use of crops, it is advisable to sow more than one, and a mix of cultures from different periods of growth and ripening.

quantity ratio gumusoobrazuyuschih materials

To compensate for the loss of humus on -vozdelyvaemyh intensive horticultural land is required annually: manure 2.5-3 kg / m2 or a plant green manure 7-8 kg / m2.

After cutting and grinding must give the green mass of the plants wither and dry up a bit, and only after that to earn extra it into the soil.Do not plug the green mass of deep, as the decomposition of plant matter is largely dependent on the degree of oxygen.This applies particularly to heavy soils, where green plants earn extra weight is recommended not deeply to avoid stagnant processes of decay of plant matter.Tall plant with rough stems should be especially careful of The main types of green manure crops for garden

Plant name

Timing sowing

depth

seeding (cm)

Green weight

(kg / m2)

Lupin yellow

April-July

3-5

3-4,5

Lupin white

April-July

3-5

3-4

Lupin blue

April-July

3-5

2-4

long

Feed / fava beans

March-July

5-8

approx. 4

Clover white

end of March to July

1-2

2,5-3

Vic

April-July

4-6

2-2,5

Field peas

April-July

4-6

2-3

Summer rape

June-August

0,3

3-5

!

Mustard

end of March and September

0,5-1

3-5

Phacelia

endMarch-August

1-2

3-5

Special features

length of the growing period, suitable for sandy soils, carries an increased acidity of the soil, mow better schoolbefore the appearance of fibrous tissue, nemorozoustoychiv Suffice fastidious to the growing conditions, successfully developed in a warm mild climate, it requires pre-cultivated loamy soil with a neutral pH, demanding degree water supply, nemorozoustoychiv of all the species of lupine has the most developed tap root system, is suitable for weakly acidic loamyand sandy soil, relatively frost

used as a previous crop for tomatoes and cucumbers, with drill seeding these crops may remain between the rows as a protection from the wind, can grow on heavy non-acidic soils, enrich the soil with nitrogen, nemorozoustoychivy undemanding, suitable for almost anysoil types, has a shallow root system that binds the surface layer of soil, creeping shoots serve as a cover layer, frost unpretentious, has developed tap root system that penetrates deep into the ground and twisting the upper arable layer weight thin adventitious roots, drought-resistant, undemanding to soil type, but it is better developed in the average weakly acidic soils, it is recommended for sowing in mixtures with ryegrass and clover is quite frost resistant cultivated only in the mixed crops, because of the fragile stems need support plants such as forage legumes, has a shallow root system is very sensitiveto a lack of moisture, prefers medium to light soil close to neutral acidic reaction nemorozoustoychiv green mass contains a lot of protein, rather unpretentious to the type of soil, is resistant to the temporary lack of moisture, mow plants succulent, not allowing them to grow and acquire fibrous nemorozoustoychiv.Attention!Be careful when planting subsequent crops of cruciferous: there is a danger of infection cabbage clubroot Sowing can be done randomly without deep seeding, it is important that at the stage of seed germination the soil is well moistened, it grows very quickly, within 1 - 1.5 weeks, the plant forms a densecover, is particularly suitable for intermediate and late crops, unpretentious to the type of soil, tolerates the lack of moisture, repels snails from planting crops, so it can be planted in between rows, nemorozoustoychiva.Caution on subsequent planting crops cruciferous family, there is a danger of infection cabbage clubroot

seeds Phacelia sensitive to light, so when planting them you need to plug in the soil go sprinkle a layer of earth, later taxing on the degree of solar illumination and soil type, resistant to lack of moisture, deciduousmass is very tender and plentiful, has a shallow dense root system, leaves behind a well-tilled topsoil, fine honey plant, recommended for early planting as a top dressing for the bees, is used for intermediate and late crops, nemorozoustoychiva

Green manure as the predecessorculture

sowing is done in the spring before growing at the site of a culture in order to improve soil quality and increasing its content of nutrients.1. Prepared in the autumn of earth loosened pitchfork or rake and sow sideralnoy culture.

2. EQS plants before flowering and plowed into the ground.

3. Amend the soil, if required, the necessary organic and mineral fertilizers to accelerate the decomposition of green mass.

4. fertilizer green-manures land can be planted any culture

shallow, to increase in this way a large area of ​​the capture material for soil microorganisms.In the garden of Green manuring is used to fill in the slots and the space station.Green manure crops to grow it is advisable to re-seeding and after harvest of early crops in those areas, which are before the winter will no longer be used.If the sow from late June to early August, green manure plants have time before the onset of cold weather to grow and provide the required amount of green mass.It is also well established itself growing green manure crops in adjacent rows between crop plants for their stimulation.Recommended planting nasturtiums next to the potatoes and tomatoes, chamomile, combined with onions, mustard - with potatoes.There is a positive experience of sowing and cultivation podpokrovnyh green manure plants growing under high vegetable and fruit crops, such as for example tomatoes, sweet corn, raspberries and others.

particular importance for gardening is planting green manure plants tree trunks of fruit trees, which shade the soil and retain moisture, partly acting as a mulch cover, and at the same time serve as protection against pathogens and pests.It landed in the tree trunks Blutwurst Nasturtium repels aphids and marigolds are struggling with the nematodes and aphids blood.This annual plants give ottsvesti and sown in situ, and then mow, crush and leave the crop on the surface of the circle around-trunk in winter.Of course, the possibility of green manuring in the process of recovery and accumulation of humus

ideraty a subsequent culture

Sowing is done after the harvest as a measure to fall tillage.

1. Earth loosen pitchfork or rake and sow green manure crops.

2. Plants left in the winter, can be covered

top layer of straw or immature compost to enhance the fertilizing effect.

3. Once dry land spring plowed decomposed remains of plants.

4. loosen the earth, to make the necessary fertilizers and supplements and to drop the planned cultural

soil is limited, so the best way to solve this problem is a combination of green manuring with the introduction of the soil on-Zozan and other organic materials and fertilizers.For example, on sloping green mass of green manure plants can make pulverized silica or add chopped straw, shredded bark, litter manure.

Due to metabolism and the subsequent return of organic matter and nutrients to the soil through the green mass of green manure plants there is a moving minerals from the lower layers of the soil in the upper topsoil.Thus, green manure plants not only eliminate the loss of nutrients in the deeper layers of the soil, but also turn them into high-quality biological forms.