Preparation of compost

June 09, 2016 23:02 | General Information About Plants

suitable for composting all organic waste and residues from the house and garden, especially those that are of vegetable origin.Materials for composting have a different composition, value and characterized by different periods of decomposition.Especially important for the composting process is the ratio of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the composition of the material.The ratio of C: N ratio ranges from 10: 1 at the grass up to 500: 1 for wood and sawdust ideal ratio of C: N ratio to obtain a qualitatively enriched compost should be in the range of 25-35: 1, ie, 25-35 parts carbon should fall 1part of the nitrogen, at a lower value may be significant loss of nitrogen during composting at the higher - inevitably slows down the decomposition process.The optimum ratio of C: N ratio for the materials in the composition of compost is achieved only complex proportional mix of all of the materials used.

organic mass of domestic and garden waste becomes a valuable raw material, the major fertilizer plants an

d power supply means to maintain the humus layer of the soil in the garden compost, created in a reasonable time humification contributes to the genesis of the soil.

ratio C: N for different types of organic materials

Material

Value With : N

Grass types

10-20: 1

Plants-green manure

15-25: 1

crop waste (vegetables,

fruit)

15: 1

Garden waste

20: 1

Dung

20-30: 1

Kitchen waste

25-30:1

Cora

. 35: 1,

Foliage

40-50: 1

needles, pine, spruce

50:1

Straw

50-125: 1

Sawdust

500: 1

From household waste often go into the compost kitchen waste-, potato peelings, egg shells, leftover vegetables, cabbage stalks, spoiled fruit and vegetables, banana peels, coffee grounds, tea leaves asleep, some spoiled food.Disagreement raises the question whether it is possible to compost moldy foods such as bread and fruit.Opinions on

Material

Methods tab in the compost

Beveled

Give dry, spread out in the sun and occasionally poking.The compost zaklady-

lawn grass

Vat thin layers, combining with other, coarser materials to

prevent dislodging small grass in clumps, rot and odor

sidereal

protein-rich green material decomposes quickly, without creating problems.Before

plants

tab to dry, lay the layers, interspersing tougher

materials

Medicinal

can be composted separately in flat compostpiles (the thickness of no more than

herbaceous plants

30 cm).With this method of composting of medicinal plants manage

avoid excessive heat generation and preserve all of the most valuable products developed

suggestions and medicinal substances.The exception are considered to tansy and wormwood

insemination weeds

To prevent the spread of weed seeds in the garden as part of compost

that, they should be pre-soaked for 10 dayswater, as is the case with

preparing herbal infusions, and only then lay in the compost

straw, hay, reeds,

is a valuable material bind moisturecomposting piles, creating

reeds

good compost porous structure that provides access of oxygen.

carefully grind and let it dry, mixed with a nitrogen-containing green

mass of compostable plant kitchen organic waste and

lay incompost thin layers

Poisonous plants garden

digitalis, yew, volchnik, broom, lily, monkshood is not necessary to be composted,

process will not be effective, as contained inthese toxic substances

killing of the microorganisms involved in the decomposition process of compost and

tirovanie suspended

Foliage

nutrient-poorsubstances, but it is characterized by a high content of

structural materials.It is not recommended to lay thin layers of foliage, so

as leaves become thinner, they stick together and can be difficult to share, even with regular

cular tedding compost.To the leaves do not stray lumps, it should

dry, if it is possible to grind and lay in the compost thin

layers, mixing with other vegetable and coarser materials.

When composting oak leaves containing large quantities dubil-

acid, lime additive desirable

Wood plant parts

Before using crushed shredder, lay in the compost between

after trimming

layers of fine material, it will create a combined structure

compost with optimal C: N, will provide a goodventilation,

prevent dislodging material in lumps and the appearance of the processes of decay

Sawdust

has a low nitrogen content, and very badly decomposed, so

need to carefully stir them with a mass of green vegetable mate-

rial, make bone meal and add manure to increase the nitrogen content

and accelerate decomposition

Tree bark

compared with sawdust has a higher nitrogen content, but the

no less need of introducing nitrogen-containing additives, bird droppings or

manure, urea or organic chemical fertilizers to enhance

decomposition process, it is also recommended the introduction of lime at the rate of

10 kg / m3 bark

Kitchen waste

is a valuable supplier of organic matter and are reasonably

high rate of decomposition, to prevent rotting processes kuhon-

nye waste should be mixed withcoarser material providing

them adequate ventilation.

When laying compost meat and other spreading the smell of waste they

should be covered with earth, so as not to attract flies, mice, rats

Paperand cardboard

decompose relatively quickly and because they contain cellulose ob-

form a good structural substance.Before laying compost grind

and wet, it is better to herbal infusion that together with the moisture they absorbed

additional nutrients.Spread in a thin layer, combined

Rui with coarse material, or wet the paper will bring down in clumps and is more difficult

decomposition process

Dung

due to the high content of nitrogen is characterized by very favorable for

compost ratio of C: N and is a catalyst for processes

decomposition.It is recommended to lay the manure is one of the layers including the material,

from which made compost, top covered with earth

the subject were divided, some researchers oppose, claiming that stand out harmful by the decomposition of damaged productstoxins such as aflatoxin, which is detrimental effect on the microflora

compost, causing metabolic disorders, thereby hindering the process of decomposition.Other scholars have argued, referring to the results of experiments that composting worms and woodlice can digest

spores of mold, mixing it with the soil particles, and to withdraw from his body in a revised form, without prejudice to himself.To access the adaptation of organisms to the substance, some breeders supply the worms cultures intended for their food, mold components.Nevertheless, the proportion of damaged materials as part of the compost should be minimal.

Materials suitable for composting

low value ratio With : N

rich in nitrogen and protein components grass clippings, weeds, green manure plants, parts of plants after harvest, substandard vegetablesand fruit, hay, reed, cane, kitchen waste, manure

high value of the ratio of C: N

carbon-rich needles, sawdust, wood scraps, bark, leaves, straw, paper and cardboard

Adversedecomposition is citrus fruit peel, containing natural preservatives such as essential oils.These complex chemical composition materials best not punch, so as not to disrupt the normal course of the process.Moreover, composting may be subjected to cutting meat and fish, and medium-sized bone.They are the preferred sources of food for soil microorganisms, also accelerate the decomposition and improve the quality of the compost.However, its odor they attract flies and various pests, including mice and rats, so adding to the compost, they must be covered with soil on top.For composting also with some reservations suitable paper and cardboard, which are to accelerate the expansion of better before laying into the compost thoroughly with water.Newsprint and cardboard decompose rather quickly, glossy paper magazines - much slower, so you should think about its application.Household waste, having a weak structure, should be mixed with coarser and fibrous garden waste, which primarily include leaves, mown lawn grass, weeds, plant after harvesting, poor quality crop residues, shredded woody parts of plants after pruning, the remnants of last year's mulch, plants soaked after preparation of herbal infusions, turf.Garden waste makes up the bulk of the compost material and have different contents of nitrogen and water.

very important issue of composting plants infected by various diseases as well as the risk of further infection of plants through the compost is very real.Without fear can be composted plants and branches of fruit trees affected by aphids, white flies mites, powdery mildew, rust, leaf spot, scab, moniliosis, red pistuloy and wormy apples.The causative agents of these diseases can not tolerate heating occurring in the decomposition process, and die at a temperature of 40 ° C, and the amount of many pathogens is reduced in the initial heating phase.It is believed that the use of such material in the compost can give an antibacterial effect, that is formed during the decomposition of a substance by the action similar to antibiotics, compost and thus provides additional protection to plants against disease.

materials unsuitable for composting

Glass.

Metal objects, wire, foil,

Any kinds of plastics.

Pottery.

debris.

Textiles.

Any chemicals.

affected near the plant diseases.

However, a number of agents of plant diseases have a high resistance and vitality even under heating conditions, and the temperature that occurs deep in the compost, is not uniform in the different layers and is not sufficient for their destruction.Numerous studies have shown that absolutely can not be composted plants affected by cabbage clubroot, wilt of asters and tomatoes, rotten root vegetables, celery and beans with white cotton-like on the surface of a dense fungal plaque or black beads.It is necessary to avoid composting fungal, bacterial and viral material, since the danger of the spread of disease to other plants by composting can not be excluded.Doubts about the possibility of composting also apply to seeds of weeds, some of which lose their germination under the influence of temperature increase in the thickness of the compost, while others are not affected by the action of heat.To prevent weeds garden insemination when composted, should first soak them in water for 10 days

as in the preparation of herbal infusions, and then composted.During this period, the seeds lose their viability, and weeds themselves are the ideal plant material.Also recommend other field-proven method: decompose almost finished compost layer of 30 cm and allow weeds to germinate, and then finely divide material.

Advantages of compost

obtain a stable form of humus by composting it is fast enough, inexpensive and right on the spot for further direct use.

composting process is very eco-friendly and close to the natural processes in nature.

Compost has as close to a natural humus structure.

As the starting materials for producing compost selected by ourselves, can not be afraid of impurities harmful to soil and plant health substances.

In the process of composting produced special substance, in fact are biocatalysts that stimulate the growth and development of plants, as well as inhibitors which inhibit or prevent the development of disease or other undesirable processes in the soil.